My writing note about IELTS

Introduction

Band Descriptors

Writing Style

TASK 1

Task 1 20min 150 words (170-180) graph 13*(0-9)

Task 2 40min 250 words (280+) essay 23*(0-9)

  • Task Achievement/ Response 67

  • Coherence and Cohesion 67

  • Lexical Resource 67

  • Grammatical Range and Accuracy 67

TA

  1. Summarise 2. Select 3. Compare 4. 150 words 5. No personal opinion

TR

  1. Position 2. Paragraphing 3. Conclusion

CC = logic + connection

And besides, furthermore, moreover, in addition, additionally, apart from this, on top of this, second to that, following this, regarding to … turning to …. When it comes to … as for …

But however, yet, while, whilst, whereas, in contrast, by contrast, on the contrary, contrarily, conversely, unexpectedly, .. On one hand, on the other hand, …

Though/although in spite of… despite …

So thus therefore thereby hence consequently, as a result, Because because of = due to .. = owing to = considering… = for the reason that … as a result of …

LR & GRA (well educated English user)

  1. Correctness 2. Diversity 3. Complexity

I can use many choices of words in writing. I can apply voluminous alternatives of vocabulary in composition.

Word origin: Germanic/ French/ Latin Number amount quantity Meet/date appointment/rendezvous Shop boutique Diner restaurant Gift present/souvenir Street/way/lane/path/drive avenue/ boulevard

Have/get/take/make/good/bad

Good nice perfect wonderful excellent terrific fantastic fabulous gorgeous marvelous splendid spectacular out/stand/ing stunning remarkable impressive sophisticated

About/ around/ nearly/ almost/ roughly/ approximately

Abandon = give up = drop abolish = cancel = call out GRE Auspicious = lucky = fortunate denouement = ending
serve as the catalyst to … = promote … = is good for

  1. 时态ed
  2. 人称-s
  3. 遗忘信息
  4. 句子结构混乱(一个句子必须有且只能有一个谓语v.)
  5. 一逗到底
  6. 分段随意

从句:主语/宾语/同位语/状语/定语 结构:倒装/强调/插入语/被动/分词

What should be mentioned is that smoking is harmful to health. I believe that .. When I was a child … If you want to solve the problem The fact that smoking is harmful cannot be ignored.

If you increase the price of oil, you can solve the pollution problem. Increasing the price of oil can solve the pollution problem. IT IS increasing the price of oil THAT can solve the pollution problem.

Only when we increase the price of oil, can we solve the pollution problem. Only when we increase the price of oil, as argued by the experts, can we solve the pollution problem. Only when the price of oil is increased, as argued by the experts, can the pollution problem be solved.

However, the data decreased. The data, however, decreased.
May I, if you do not mind, have your name? The data, as indicated by the graph, generally displayed an upward trend.

You all sit in the classroom, studying IELTS. You all sit in the classroom, taught by the teacher.

The data experienced a climb, which reached the peak.

ACADEMIC WRITING STYLE

  1. isn’t = is not don’t = do not shouldn’t = should not can’t = cannot
  2. a lot a little a bit of gonna wanna
  3. US vs UK Centre Summarise Recognise Behaviour Programme UK center summarize Recognize behavior Program US Meter metre analyse organise favour neighbour
    Water
    cliché = stereotype naïve = childish = innocent café
  4. tense 一般过去时/一般现在时
  5. personal pronoun 人称代词 TASK 1 TASK2 I/we X Partly (position/conclusion) You X X He/she/it/they He/she he or she Political correctness Change jobs

TASK 1

DATA bar/line/table/pie/mixed chart Non-Data map/diagram

DATA - dynamic or static

  1. trend 2. Similarities and differences

n. - change / growth rise climb increase \ decline reduce drop fall decrease ~ fluctuation – stabilization a stable/steady/unchanged + period/stage

adj. - changing rate dramatic significant considerable substantial evident obvious remarkable sharp rapid swift

insignificant inconsiderable insubstantial slight marginal modest mild gentle subtle

ascend / descend/ soar/ rocket/ boom/ dive/ collapse/ plummet/ plunge soar = a dramatic growth

declined slightly v. - a slight decline n. - a slightly declining trend adj.

中国人口出生率在最近十年间从2.2 缓慢下降到1.9。 1. Chinese birth rate declined slightly from 2.2 to 1.9 during the last decade. 2. Chinese birth rate saw/witnessed/experienced a slight decline from 2.2. to 1.9. 3. There was a slight decline in Chinese birth rate from 2.2 to 1.9. 4. A slight decline can be seen/witnessed/observed in Chinese birth rate from 2.2 to 1.9. 5. Chinese birth rate displayed a slightly declining trend from 2.2 to 1.9. 6. The recent decade witnessed a slight decline in Chinese birth rate from 2.2 to 1.9.

汽油价格剧烈增长。 There was a considerable growth in oil price. A substantial rise can be observed in oil price.

/

After the climb, there is a decline. The data saw at first a rise, before dropping to .. The data increased at first, followed by a reduction. An increase can be seen, after which was a decline.

/–

after the climb, there is a decline, followed however by a decline at last.

OG test 6

Opening: introduction Burglary max grow decline unchanged Car theft stable drop rise >burglary Robbery steady (fluctuation) minimum Overview

The chart below shows the changes that took place in three different areas of crime in Newport city centre from 2003-2012.

The line graph depicts the variations/alterations that occurred in diverse/ various types of crime in inner Newport city during the decade (2003-2012).

The line graph depicts how rates of crime varied/altered in Newport city during the decade 2003 -2012.

What is depicted in the line graph demonstrates the variations in the statistics of different sorts of crimes in Newport city from 2003 to 2012.

To start with, the rate of burglary was once the largest among three types of crimes in 2003. Afterwards, a modest growth from approximately 3400 to 3800 in the next years can be witnessed in burglary. In the next 4 years, there was a considerable decline to about 1100 in 2008 and it remained unchanged at around 1400 till 2012.

In stark contrast, there was at first a stable stage in the quantity of car theft at nearly 2800 in the initial two years, followed by a significant drop to over 2000 in the year 2006. The following years witnessed a continuous rise in the number of car theft to almost 2700 in 2012, which exceeded/surpass/outnumbered the statistics of burglary in 2006.

Simultaneously, the figure for robbery, as consistently the least in number, displayed a slightly fluctuating trend within the range from 500 to 1000 throughout the time period.

Overall, the changing rates of crime generally indicated a downward tendency.

C5T1

USA increase stable increase Sweden increase fluctuations > USA Japan decrease increase boom > USA and Sweden

C7T2

Beef max fluctuate decrease Lamb decrease fluctuation Fish decrease (stable) minimum Chicken increase >lamb & beef max

Beef was once the largest consumption, which experienced several fluctuations. Afterwards, there was a decline.

Beef was once the largest consumption. After the considerable fluctuations, there was a decline.

Beef, as once the largest consumption, experienced several fluctuations at first, followed by a considerable decline.

Before the decline, Beef was the largest, which experienced fluctuations at first.

细节:
  1. 主语搭配要严谨 The proportion of aged population in USA experienced a climb from 5% to 15%. Then it kept stable at 14%. The data of USA data/number/quantity/amount/figure/statistics Japan aged population dropped from 5 to 3. Goods transported by road transportation increased from 70 to less than 100 million tonnes.

  2. 时态(将来时/跨越时态) The data of Japan is expected/ projected/ predicted/ estimated to exceed USA. From 1980 on, the data of USA kept stable and is predicted to be unchanged till 2020. From 1980 to 202, a stable period can be seen at around 14%. There was a growth in the data of USA, followed by a steady period at around 14%. The figure for Japan keeps booming, exceeding the data of USA in 2030.

…, reaching the same level as … an identical value to … exceed/ outnumber/ surpass reach the peak/ it peaked at … it reached the maximum data minimum bottom recover/ bounce back about/ around/ almost/ nearly/ roughly/ approximately/ circa (+ time)

rental max decrease VHS decrease 2006 disappear DVD increase to peak >rental max decrease Blu-ray 07 appear increase minimum

First of all, rental. Similarly, VHS. In contrast, DVD. Besides, blu-ray

Appearing in 2007, the sales of blue ray saw a subtle growth from .. to .., reported to be the least preferred.

A max increase peak decrease max B increase 2nd C subtle increase sharp growth (nevertheless minimum) Primarily, a… Showing a diverse trend ,… Likewise, ..  

Static Data

Solar/wind/nuclear/hydro power new/clean energy Coal/ natural gas/oil fossil fuels

Data % + Description (ranking/ comparison) Coal took up 47%, and it was the largest proportion.

Coal took up 47%, which was the largest proportion. Coal took up 47%, being the largest proportion. Coal took up 47%, reported to be the largest proportion. Coal took up 47%, with the largest proportion. Coal, as the largest proportion, took up 47%.

Coal was the largest proportion, which took up 47%. Coal was the largest proportion, taking up 47%. Coal was the largest proportion, reported to take up 47%. Coal was the largest proportion, with the figure of 47%. Coal was the largest proportion, at 47%.

v. + % take up make up account for stand at (phrasal verb) consist compose represent cover occupy

adj. + description largest most fewest least

important significant essential crucial critical vital dominant key core central major (不加比较/最高级)

popular prevailing prevalent preferred favored welcomed common trendy fashionable

the most widely selected/ participated/ used/ applied/ adopted/ chosen/ enjoyed..


Given are two pie charts depicting the statistics of various energy resources used in electricity production in 1970 and 1980.

In 1970, coal was the most significant composition of electricity production, with the percentage of 47%. By contrast, the proportion of natural gas was just 24%, which occupied nearly half of the figure for coal. Following this, hydro and oil took up a close share, standing at 16% and 12% respectively. To the last point, there was merely 1% of American electricity generated by nuclear, reported to be the least widely applied energy resource.

A decade later, there was a marginal climb in the data of coal from 47% to 51%, possessing still the first place. Likewise, another increase can be witnessed in the percentage of nuclear from 1% to 11% in 1980. On the contrary, all the other energy production experienced a decline. Natural gas displayed the most dramatically dropping trend from 24% to 15%. Simultaneously, the composition of hydro and oil both reduced to 12% and 11% separately.

To summarise, coal was consistently the most essential resource for American energy supply.

Data Description A x which B with … x C x as D x reported E -ing x F x x

Percentage proportion composition portion share section part Rate/ratio heart rate 85 bpm sex ratio 1:6 1:3

5 tonnes to 10 tonnes CO2 increased from 5 to 10

Metric metre kilogram gram ton

CO2 emission per person in UK CO2 emitted/produced/generated by UK residents The data/amount/quantity of British emission the figure for UK emission Swedish/Swede Italy/Italian Portugal/Portuguese

In 1981, teachers’ salaries were the largest spending of this school, accounting for 40%. In contrast, other workers’ salaries covered merely 28%, which was much less than the former. Following this, the figure for resource and equipment shared exactly identical proportion, both at 15%. Lastly, there was only 2% of the school expense spent on insurance, with the percentage of only 2%.

During the follow two decades, there was at first a slight growth in the proportion of teachers’ salaries from 40% to 50%, after which was a decline to 45% in 2001. Similarly, the figure for books and resource displayed the same trend, rising from 15% to 20% and then back to 9%. Contrarily, the composition of equipment spending experienced initially a modest drop from 15% to 5% before bouncing back/recovering to 23%. Simultaneously, …

Overall, payment/wage for the teachers was constantly/consistently the most essential expenditure of the school.

Cost spending expense expenditure

Firstly, at first, primarily, initially, in the first place, To start with, to begin with, the first … year witnessed a considerable drop ..

Opening: intro Australia: total/ coal/ natural/ hydro/ oil France: total/ 5 types Summary: similarities: total production both increased differences: while coal was the dominant composition in Australia and nuclear in France

省略句:UK and Sweden displayed in general a downward trend, whist/whereas Italy and Portugal (displayed a) downward (trend).

The pie charts show how water is taken and emptied by human body, measured in the unit of c.c. and depicted in two separate charts.

First of all, regarding to the water intake of human body, 1500c.c. of the water is absorbed via fluids, which is the larger composition of water intake. The rest is through solid food, with the amount of 1000c.c.

When it comes to the water output, the most significant approach is liquid water kidneys, standing at 1500c.c. This is followed by sweat, which occupies 500c.c. Sharing a close composition, the corresponding data of water output through lungs is 400c.c. To the last point, solid wastes, as the least crucial part, reports the data of merely 100c.c.

To summarise, despite that there are more diverse methods of water output of human body, the main way of water intake and output both relies on water in liquid form.

Abs

Secondary decrease 60 (max) - 19 Bachelor increase 43 (max) decrease 33 (max) Master 2 increase 25 2nd/>secondary Ph.D. 0-5 increase minimum

The bar chart given demonstrates the variations in the proportion of employees with different education backgrounds in a company (1991-2002).

Primarily, the number of employees with a secondary education background experienced a considerable decline from 60, which was once the most significant composition of the company in 1991, to 19 in 2000.

Contrary to that, there was at first a sharp growth in the number of bachelors employed from 20 to 43 in 1996, superseding the secondary educated staff and taking up the largest proportion. It was followed then by a slight drop to 33 in 2000, reported still to rank at/possess the first position.

In addition, the quantity of postgraduates in the enterprise indicated an evidently growing trend. The most dramatic climb can be observed in the number of masters from 2 to 25, which outnumbered the figure for secondary in 2000. Meanwhile, the data of Ph.Ds. increased slightly from none to 5 in the end, remaining consistently as the fewest in number.

To summarise/in general, the proportion of co-workers/ colleagues who received higher education displayed an upward trend. Preschool education (nursery/kindergarten) Primary education secondary education tertiary education/higher education Two duo dual duet

The table lists the detailed statistics of six underground systems in the major cities in the world.

To start with, built in 1863, London tube is 394km long, which is the oldest and longest of all the underground systems listed. Likewise, with the length of 199km, Paris metro, as the underground transport with the second longest length and history, was constructed in 1900. In stark contrast, however, Kyoto underground, covering merely 11km, is the shortest among the six cities, which was accomplished in 1981. Simultaneously, subway in LA was completed in 2001, reported to be the most recently built, and the length of it is just 28km.

Unexpectedly, the largest number of passengers cannot be found in London, but in Tokyo, transporting 1927 million travellers per year. This is followed by the corresponding data of Paris, with the figure of 1191 million. In contrast, there are only 144 million citizens in Washington DC commuting with underground annually, which is overwhelmingly fewer than the formers. To the last point, the carrying capacity of Kyoto underground ranks the last, standing at 45 million.

Overall, the underground railway with an earlier opening data tends to cover a longer length. The yearly passengers, however, do not follow the same pattern.

.. cannot be concluded in this pattern/marking.

Year + length + description

London ed X which Paris X with as Kyoto which ing X LA x X ed

…1.., S,…2… ,_v._4_____, ……3.. .

London capital city long history bad weather university tourist sites

Despite the bad weather, London, as the capital city of UK, is known for her long history and tourist sites, which attracts numerous tourists every year.

MIXED CHART

Opening: introductions Graph 1: overview + data Graph 2: overview + data Summary: overview 1+2

The first line graph illustrates the trend of UK visitors, while the second their destinations.

Overall, 1+2.

MAP

C5T3 Opening: introduction S1: + convenient traffic/ close to Hindon (more customers from ..)/ lower rent/ abundant space (especially for parking) - distant from town centre/housing area (fewer customers) S2: + surrounded by housing area (more customers)/ railway - inconvenient for driving/ close to none of the neighbour towns/ higher rent/ limited space Summary: S1 is a more reasonable option

C9T1

Opening: introduction Before: direction/ distribution After: changes Summary:

Before: location/ size/ trees/ beach/ no buildings After: pier/ reception/ restaurant/ accommodation/ swimming/ trees

Types of changes 1. 新建 sth. is newly/recently + constructed/ built/ established/ arranged/ planned/ designed/ developed 被动 sth. appears/ emerges/ occurs/ comes into existence/ arise 主动

  1. 拆除 sth. is removed/ dismantled/ dissembled 被动 sth. disappears/ vanishes 主动

  2. 扩建
    sth. is enlarged. 被动 Sth expands/extends the area/length of sth. increase/grows/climb/rise 主动

  3. 缩建 sth. shrinks (shrank/ shrunk)/ contract 主动 sth. is reduced/ cut down 被动

  4. 改建 sth is converted/ changed/ altered/ transformed/ rearranged/ reconstruct into . sth is displaced/ replaced/ superseded/ substituted by …

  5. 不变 sth remains unchanged/ the same as before

Before: location/ size/ trees/ beach/ no buildings After: pier/ reception/ restaurant/ accommodation/ swimming/ trees

The map provided demonstrates the alterations that take place before and after the tourist development on an island.

Before the construction, the given place is an isolated island located at the middle of the sea. For the size of the island, it is measured horizontally longer than vertically on map, with the estimated length of over 200m. To be more specific, there are no artificial buildings that can be seen on the island, but covered by several trees. Lastly, a natural beach can also be located to the left shore of the island.

After the rearrangement, the evident change is the newly built pier, which is connected to the reception at the centre of the island trough vehicle track. Behind the reception, there is a recently constructed restaurant, offering catering services for the tourists. What should also be noticed is the accommodations planed for the travellers to both sides of the reception, linked with each other via footpaths. To the last point, a swimming area is also developed surrounding the beach.

To summarise, the originally undeveloped/ unexploited/ virgin island is converted into a suitable travelling destination.

T-junction/joint

C13T1 Given are two maps illustrating the alterations in the road connection to City Hospital in two given years (2007 and 2010).

In 2007, starting from the south, the City Road in east-west direction intersected with the Hospital Road. Along the Hospital Road to the north, six bus stops can be seen at both sides of the road, with a car park planned for both staff and the public to the further eastern area of the bus stops. At the northern end of Hospital Road, a T-joint can be discovered, linked to the Ring Road. Lastly, surrounded by the Ring Road was the City Hospital.

3 years later, the T-junction and the crossroad of City Road and Hospital Road were both converted into roundabouts. The bus stops at the western side of the road were enlarged into a bus station connected to both roundabouts, while the bus stops on the opposite side were removed. The car park, simultaneously, was rearranged solely for staff in 2010. Furthermore, another car park east to the Ring Road was newly constructed for the public and City Hospital kept mainly unchanged.

Overall, a more complex road access to the City Hospital was established after the three years duration.  

DIAGRAM/FLOW CHART/PICTURES

  1. Industrial production raw material (n.) + be done (v.) + by a tool (n.) + into a product (n.)

v. make/ create/ form/ generate/ establish/ produce

  1. Lifecycle eggs are produced. > hatch into larva/juvenile/offspring > absorb/take in/ feed on/ feed off + food/nutrition > grow > critical period (关键期) > transformation > reach the maturity and becomes adult … > mate v. > spawn v. spawning adult > reproduce > repeat

The diagram given depicts the entire procedure of how to make bread. Generally speaking, it is a relatively interesting/complex/simple process including 6 stages.

At the very beginning, warm water and sugar should be mixed with yeast in order to activate it. Afterwards, first mixture needs to be added with more water, flour and salt to form the dough. The following step is to knead the dough for 10 minutes so that it becomes smooth and shiny. Having done this, the dough will be left in a warm place to rise. 1-3 hours later, a few minutes of kneading and punching are required to release the air inside. To finish the process of bread making, what should be done at last is to shape loaves. After another hour of rising, the unfinished toast should be eventually placed into the oven of 200˚C for 10 to 15 minutes.

To summarise, all these instructions/description/steps above conclude the whole progress of how bread is made.

Excavation

The dough is kneaded for 10 minutes. 10 minutes of kneading is needed. The next step is to knead the dough.

Afterwards, first mixture needs to be added with more water, flour and salt to form the dough, which is about to be kneaded for 10 minutes to make it smooth and shiny.

Warm water and sugar should be added into the yeast.

The first step of brick manufacture is to dig the clay using a digger. What should be done next is called pasteurization, which is to warm the milk to 63˚C for 30 minutes to kill bacteria.

After being pumped and cooled to 30˚C, starter is needed to ripen milk.

30 to 60 minutes later, coagulant, for instance rennet, should be stirred into the milk to obtain/get whey and curds.

Eggs are produced by the moth, which will grow into silkworm larva feeding on mulberry leaves in 10 days.

silk threads are produced by the larva.

  1. connective words
  2. time adverbial 时间状语
  3. 主语一致 …., which

firstly, primarily, initially//, at first, in the first step, at the very beginning, to start with// the first step is to ….. = what should be done at first is to …

next, then, afterwards,// in the next step, following this, having done this, = having kneaded the dough, after that = after doing sth, …// to continue the process, // the following step is to … = what should be done next is to …

finally, lastly, eventually,// in the last step, in the final stage/phase,// to finish/ accomplish/ end the process, // the final step is to … what should be done at last is to …

When it comes to the production of silk cloth, cocoons that fit certain criteria should be selected as the raw material of cloth production. Following this, the selected cocoons need to be boiled in water before the next stage of unwinding, which restores the cocoon back to silk threads that range from 300 -900m. Having done this, before the last step of dyeing, there are two options available. One is to solely twist the threads, while the other requires another procedure of weaving between the steps of twisting and dyeing.

TASK 2

  • To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages

  • What/why/how/causes/reasons/solutions/suggestions

  1. Position 2. Paragraphing 3. Conclusion

STRUCTURES

 (To what extent) do you agree or disagree? Opening: introduction + position (YES/NO) 40 Reason 1: topic sentence + supporting + ending 70 Reason 2: topic sentence + supporting + ending 15+40+15 Reason 3: topic sentence + supporting + ending Conclusion 30-40

 Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Opening: intro + position (A/B/A+B) View A: Reason 1 = topic sentence + supporting Reason 2 = topic sentence + supporting View B: Reason 1 = topic sentence + supporting Reason 2 = topic sentence + supporting Conclusion

 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages Opening: opening + position (positive/ negative) Advantage 1: topic sentence + supporting (让步) Disadvantage 1: topic sentence + supporting Disadvantage 2: topic sentence + supporting (Disadvantage 3: topic sentence + supporting) Conclusion

 What/why/how/causes/reasons/solutions/suggestions Opening: intro + answers Question 1: Answer 1 = topic sentence + supporting Answer 2 = topic sentence + supporting Question 2: Answer 1 = topic sentence + supporting Answer 2 = topic sentence + supporting Conclusion

ARGUMENT - Participants Analysis

Unpaid community service as high school compulsory program 1. waste of time 2. trouble/ incapable of doing the task/ burden 3. difficulty of organizing the program/ safety risk

students - better development (skills/ social network/ experience/ competence) community - receive more assistance/ save social resource/ other improve/ harmony school - comprehensive education/ all-around/ personality/ prevent teenager crime/ reputation/ attract more potential students

museums discharge entrance fee museum higher income/ more budgets/ daily maintenance/ exhibition visitors better visiting experience government save appropriation/ other improvement/ good image tax payer reduce burden

Topic sentence Argument Keywords Supporting Proof (logical reason) How/why/benefits Ending Comment Arguing skills* * 举例/ 反证/ 强调

Argument = statement 1 + statement 2 — statement 3

Education/ culture/ science and technology/ pollution/ crime/ traffic/ immigration/ urbanization/ aging/ overpopulation (social issue)/ family/ career/ media/ globalization/ abstract

Kindergarten/ foreign language/ teenager crime/ freshmen/ knowledge/ career skills/ career development

Good education

  ULTTIMATE DEBATE RATIONAL Challenge Pressure competition potential practical purpose skills tools survival career promotion success fortune fame social status aggressive ambitious social network resource opportunity pragmatism efficiency investment low cost high return profits modernization standardize

IDEALISTIC/EMOTIONAL Patience liberal Interest personality characteristics space explore curiosity enjoy uniqueness individuality spiritual/ psychological philosophy peaceful inner peace happiness humanity harmony friendship interaction communication exchange diversity personal experience

Social Issue

Should social problems be solved by government or individual? Civil rights vs obligation (tax)

Centralized High tax high welfare high efficiency high risk (corruption/ policy mistake) Political power policy manage/control implement elites the poor /equal

Liberalized Low tax low welfare low efficiency low risk Market supply-demand profits rational the rich freedom

Pollution should be government Responsibility/ responsible to the tax payer/ good image/ support City planning/ future development


reduce tax/ tax payer living expense reduces avoid occupation/ risks recycle/ science development

7-24h free public transport

university more difficult to admit students majority unfair minority less competitive employer imbalance in career market

C4T3

Creative artists should always be given the freedom to express their own ideas (in words, pictures, music or film) in whichever way they wish. There should be no government restrictions on what they do. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

Artists better creation/ better works Government save resources/ administrative costs/ open-minded Citizens/public/audiences better appreciation/ higher cultural level

The behaviors of the artists are considered increasingly absurd/ ridiculous/ unacceptable/ across the bottom line of morality. However, from my point of view, this cannot be taken as an excuse to limit the freedom of artists.

First and foremost, freedom plays the most essential role in promoting art creation. Freedom of artists can stimulate more inspirations and space for them, which enables them to express their inner thoughts/emotions without any obstacles. As a result, there will be more abundant artistic themes as well as forms emerging, contributing to more unique art works. Their authors, consequently, would enjoy/receive more prevalence and fortune. Apparently, without freedom, none of those remarkable masterpieces would be possible.

Apart from this, freedom also provides the government with numerous conveniences in daily administration. By abolishing those unnecessary government regulations in art industry, a considerable number of administrative costs can be reduced, effectively saving limited/ finite budgets for the government. The saved amount can be accordingly invested in other crucial social sectors such as funding art education or more art galleries, which establishes an open-minded yet responsible image for the authorities and wins public support.

Last but not least, a liberal social environment lays the solid foundation for cultural prosperity. More frequent communication would take place, which facilitates the interaction and fusion among various arts. The innovation in art industry resulting from cultural exchange gives rise to a profusion of new art genres and offers more possibilities to the audiences for art appreciation. Evidently, it is freedom of the artists that enriches the leisure time entertainment and local cultural diversity.

By way of conclusion, after analyzing all sorts of benefits/advantages/merits of freedom in art creation, I strongly support the idea that the freedom of artists should be protected/guaranteed/ensured under any circumstances.


Many/ abundant/ copious/ a profusion of/ adequate/ sufficient Linguistic/ biological diversity

Classics/jazz/blues/funk/rock/punk/pop/rap

*(Inspiration/imagination/space Express freely thoughts/ emotions abundant theme/topic/form attractive/ uniqueness/ moving popular/ rich motivated devote more better creation)

*(Cancel restrictions reduce administrative costs save budgets other investment eg. (art education/ galleries) open minded responsible image win the trust and support from public )

*(Freedom art communication/exchange interaction absorb/ borrow/ fusion/ innovation more art styles/ genres art appreciation more options/possibilities leisure time entertainment enriched)

Sth is important sth is of importance/significance/essentiality Sth is necessary sth is of significant necessity …

Scientists/ artists/ historical figures/ pop stars

The restrictions imposed by government on artists are growing increasingly strict/rigid. From my point of view, the freedom of artists should be protected under any circumstances.

Imbalanced sex ratio in university is recognized as a severe problem in high education. However, equal admission from both genders cannot be regarded as a proper solution to this issue.

The phenomenon of irrational consumption can be frequently observed in modern society. As far as I am concerned, this is mainly caused by the influence of advertising.

HOMEWORK: C9T4

Every year several languages die out. Some people think that this is not important because life will be easier if there are fewer languages in the world. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this opinion?

Native speakers/ government/ linguistic diversity/ (researcher/learner)

C6T3

Some people believe that visitors to other countries should follow local customs and behavior. Others disagree and think that the host country should welcome cultural differences. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion. Pros Cons Follow local customs Enrich traveling experience Respect / avoid conflicts/ safety
Welcome cultural differences Comfortable/ tourism/ economy
Cultural diversity -
Frequent cultural conflicts caused by global tourism have exerted a profound negative impact on the relationship between tourists and local residents. As far as I am concerned, to solve this problem, efforts from both sides are of great necessity.

On one hand, following local customs and behavior is an extremely advisable suggestion to the visitors. PRIMARILY, a more abundant travelling experience can be achieved by trying to learn local cultural traditions. Through participating in more native cultural events, the travellers can acquire/procure an in-depth understanding of local lifestyle and society, contributing to the accumulations of knowledge about different areas/regions of the world. Evidently, not following local customs would only lead to a meaningless journey. SECONDARILY, it is also an appropriate approach to show respect to local culture. Abiding by local rules can efficiently reduce the risk of offending those uncertain cultural taboos in local society, which consequently avoids those unnecessary conflicts between both sides. This not only establishes a harmonious atmosphere in global tourism, but also ensures the safety of the tourists.

On the other hand, host country should also accept diverse cultural elements from different backgrounds. The first reason supporting my argument is that by showing an open image to the outside world, more tourists would be attracted to visit this particular country. With the growth in the number of visits, there will be increasing demand for consumption and services, which gives rise to larger scale of production and more relevant job positions. The local tourism and economy can be eventually boosted to a large extent. Another factor is that local cultural diversity can also be enriched when embracing exotic culture. The communication between travellers and local populace is conducive to the fusion and exchange among various cultures, so that more copious lifestyles would arise. The local citizens can therefore enjoy more possibilities for leisure time entertainment.

In conclusion, after investigating in the two given views, it is apparent that there are no contradictions de facto between the visitors and local inhabitants. A possible solution de jure to this issue is to encourage/ advocate for more mutual understanding and tolerance from each other.

de facto 事实上的 adj. factual de jure 理论上的 adj. theoretical Vice versa 反之亦然 Circa 大约 etc. eg. i.e. = namely/that is to say

follow

Follow no offense taboo avoid conflicts harmony safety

If you do not follow local customs, your trip will be very boring.

Participate in native cultural events Better understanding of local society knowledge eg. .. meaningful

Primary/ secondary/ tertiary

Can journalists still be trusted?

What qualifications are needed to be a good journalist?

  1. They cannot be trusted (subjective/ limitation/ not the truth/ narratives)
  2. but they are still valuable (provide various perspectives/ freedom of speech/ analysis)
  3. consciousness / justice/ integrity
  4. language proficiency
C7T2

Some people believe that there should be fixed punishments for each type of crime. Others, however, argue that the circumstances of an individual crime, and the motivation for committing it, should always be taken into account when deciding on the punishment. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

1
Pros    Cons

Fixed punishment High efficiency Justice: mental solace/ comfort Motivation/situation Insufficient punishment Higher crime rate

Juridical systems high efficiency Victims justice/ mental solace/ comfort Criminal deserved punishment Citizens/public deter potential crimes

C6T2

Successful sports professionals can earn a great deal more money than people in other important professions. Some people think this is fully justified while others think it is unfair. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Sport professionals 1. Efforts and sacrifice 2. early retirement/ financial support sport team/club reasonable salary/ competence/ win championship sponsorship rational decision/ higher sales and profits/ market value/ fans

C8T1

Some people think that parents should teach children how to be good members of society. Others, however, believe that school is the place to learn this. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

Family/parents :1. 2. School/ formal: 1. 2.

C5T2

In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this. Do the advantages of doing so out weigh its disadvantages? Is it a positive or negative phenomenon?

Pros and cons Gap Year +: enlarge social network/ practical working skill/ social experience (personal development) financial support for the family/ earn the tuition fee/ reduce the burden of parents broaden horizon/ explore personal interest/ self actualization/ satisfaction/ happiness

-: waste one year time/ later graduation/ age disadvantage abandon study/ forget the knowledge from secondary/ not suitable mental status for study/ self exile waste money personal safety

The number of students who decide to spend one more year outside campus before entering university experiences a considerable growth recently. From my perspective, the choice of gap year has more merits than disadvantages.

反例: First of all, the most evident demerit of gap year is that it wastes one year precious time for the teenagers. The later admission caused by gap year would consequently lead to later graduation, which brings about the age disadvantage to the graduates. There will be numerous negative impacts on the start of their career path, considering the HR’ preference of younger employees/interviewees. This would eventually give rise to severe problems in the career development of the students.

让步: Of course, admittedly, gap year is not a 100%/absolutely perfect choice for each student who decides to do so. For instance, the possible later graduation might be a concern for the graduates, especially for their parents, which would probably set up potential obstacles/ barriers when starting their career. However, this drawback can be effectively overcome by the experience gained during gap year.

To be more specific, gap year contributes to a more satisfied personal development for the youngsters. ….

让步: 当然,xxx也不是完美的。比如说,xxx。但是,这个缺点可以克服/并不明显。 当然,xxx也是有一些好处的。比如说xxx。但是,这个优点代价太大/不普适。

Later admission/ later graduation age disadvantage negative impact on the start of career path HR like younger employees less competitive severe problem

General training TASK 1 letter tone and style

Many thanks! Thank you very much! I appreciate your assistance. Your assistance is highly appreciated!


  It is generally acknowledged that families are not as close as they used to be. Give possible reasons and recommendations.

Reason: 1. Life pressure 2. Technology distraction Solution: 1. Balance family and career 2. Limit the use of electronic device

Indifferent family relationship can be easily observed in nowadays society. To my knowledge, life pressure and technology distraction are the two main causes leading to this phenomenon.

To be more specific, the first reason for unconcerned family relationship is the intensive stress from survival/career. To adapt to the increasingly fierce competition in career field, the employees have no choice but to devote more personal time and energy to working, which leads to endless overtime working or business trips. The time that could have been spent with family is therefore occupied, hurting family relationship. Another significant factor is the interference from the advancement of modern technology. During family reunion, the family member, especially the younger generation, prefer to immerse themselves in the virtual world simulated by internet, ignoring the face to face communication with others. Obviously, the use of electronic devices such as smart phone or tablets exerts negative impacts on family relation.

The reasons for estranged family relationship, as discussed above, are fairly easy to be figured out. As for the solution to this issue, several suggestions are put forward/raised as follows. One of the most feasible approaches is to balance family and career development. To achieve that goal, more reasonable time management and higher working efficiency are of great necessity, so that meaningless overtime working can be avoided, contributing to more family time. Apart from that, the use of electronic gadgets should be strictly restricted during family time. Instead, more interactive and traditional family activities, e.g. playing Mahjong, family dinner or family trip, should be encouraged, which creates more common topics and memories with relatives. Consequently, a more intimate family relationship can be obtained.

By way of conclusion, the main reasons for distant family relationship are the career competition together with the negative influence from technology development. In order to resolve that, higher working efficiency and more traditional family events are required.

Time management higher working efficiency avoid unnecessary overtime working

Interactive traditional family activities relatives more common topics and memories communication improved

allurement

solve/resolve/tackle/address/deal with/cope with/handle

Competition devote more overtime working/ business trip occupy family time Family party/reunion/gathering be addicted/indulged to/in virtual world/internet neglect/ignore the face to face communication

Indifferent family relationship can be easily observed in nowadays society. (In this essay, the reasons as well as several suggestions will be discussed as follows.)  

流程图作业问题提醒:

The cold water should be pumped down into the injection well that is measured 4.5 km deep undergrounds.

The cold water should be pumped down into the injection well.

with the depth of 4.5km.

The cold water should be pumped down into the injection well being measured 4.5 km deep undergrounds.

that/which/who

My GF who works in London is a doctor. My GF, who works in London, is a doctor.

The data was the largest of all the statistics listed in the table, which grew slightly afterwards.

Name References

Vincent van Gogh Starry Night/ Still Life: a Vase of Twelve Sunflower/ Self Portrait Picasso Guernica Jean Claude Monet Impression Sunrise/ the Water Lillis Ludwig van Beethoven No. 1-9 Symphony/ Moonlight Sonata Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Le Nozze di Figaro (the Marriage of Figaro)/ Don Giovanni/ Magic Flute Johan Sebastian Bach Toccata and Fuge in D Shostakovich No.7 Symphony in C Tchaikovsky Swan Lake William Shakespeare Macbeth/ King Lear/ Hamlet/ Romeo and Juliet/ the Merchant of Venice Charles Dickens The Tale of Two Cities Alexandre Dumas The Lady of Camellias Garcia Marquez One Hundred Year of Solitude Sir Isaac Newton/ Leibniz Fortune/luck/preparation/focus Albert Einstein Efforts Thomas Edison Efforts/talent Alan Mathison Turing discrimination Von Neumann creator of computer Steven Hawking The Theory of Everything Plato
Aristotle
Archimedes
Heraclitus Nothing endures but change. One cannot step into the same river twice. Sir Winston Churchill Freedom liberty Franklin D. Roosevelt Freedom liberty Chiang Kai Shek Dr. Sun Yat Sen George Washington Equality /liberty/ revolution Abraham Lincoln Against racism Martin Luther King Against discrimination Barrack Obama
Adolf Hitler Inhuman/against Jews/racism Joseph Stalin Inhuman Kims
Michael Jackson Racial equal/ children protection/ environment protection Steve Jobs iPhone/iPad Messi talent Christiano Ronaldo efforts Justin Bieber
Lady Gaga
Benedict Cumberbatch