IELTS topics of task2 ,as follows, is for you !

01 政府类:政府职能

(1) 经济: 促进经济发展。 背景:政府被人民选举出来,可以制定比较好的政策去让国家更加富裕,生活更好 解释1:投资科技, 效率会提高,产品会更加有竞争力。 解释2: 鼓励创业、减税,减少企业的运营成本, 增加就业机会。 解释3:加强基础设施建设,运输方便

词伙: enforce/formulate policies, rich/econmically developed/prosperous, have competitive advantages set up a business, reduce/cut tax, operation/running cost, create jobs/ generate employment infrastructure investment 翻译: To make a country richer is possibly the main duty of the government. The head of the government is elected by the public to enforce policies to grow the economy and improve the standard of living of everybody. The government can achieve this possibly by investing in technology, which can improve the productivity of the workforce and increase the competitiveness of products. Another method is to cut tax to reduce the cost of running and encourage people to set up business, which can create jobs. Finally, it is also important to invest in infrastructure, so it is easier to transport goods to different places to make money.

(2) 社会环境:维持社会的秩序

解释:政府有权立法,规范和制约行为,确保社会不会因为不好的行为而产生动乱。 解释2:政府管理军队还有警察,执法部门,确保法律得到执行,确保社会的稳定 解释(C的好处):生活有保障,有幸福感

词伙: law-making power, social unrest/havoc/chaos,law enforcement entities/agents,feel safe, a sense of well-being/happiness 翻译: The government is also responsible to maintain social order. It has the law-making power to regulate the behaviour of citizens and deter bad behaviour, to prevent social unrest caused by crime and offences. Meanwhile, the government manages military forces and police forces, as well as other law-enforcement agents, to ensure all laws are enacted for social stability. people will have a sense of security in an orderly society and this is important to life satisfaction.

(3) 生活标准:政府要提高社会公平

背景:贫富差距增加是建立快乐社会的挑战,穷人会对上层阶级充满敌意。

解释:通过资源社会安排,将富人的部分财富分配给穷人,穷人有机会接受教育、享受社会资源。

结果:穷人有安全感和幸福感,富人则有安全感,社会安全稳定。

词伙: create a fair society, wealth gap/disparity, build a happy society, upper class, redistribute wealth, a sense of happiness and safety 翻译: Creating a fair society is another thing the government should do as it is the key to social stability. The widening wealth gap is possibly the biggest challenge to building a happy society because the disadvantaged are hostile to the upper class. To achieve greater equality, the government can levy higher tax on the wealthy and can redistribute the wealth to support the people in need. Even people from deprived backgrounds can be educated to find good jobs, and if they have access to free or low-cost public services, such as medical care, they can set aside money easily for transforming their lives. In this way, the disadvantaged feel a sense of happiness and security while the rich will experience a sense of safety.

(4) 生活标准要提高:花钱在公共服务 和福利上 解释: 税收应该取之于民,用之于民。 措施:投资医疗服务,人们可以体检,保持健康,有病就治 措施:投资教育,提高就业能力 措施:交通、公园、娱乐设施,生活方便和丰富

词伙: tax revenue, tax is collected from… the interest of the public physical examination, health check-up, stay/keep healthy, cure diseases/recover from illnesses sharpen job skills/ability to find work convenient, enrich one’s life, live a colourful life 翻译: Another responsibility of the government is to improve the standard of living of the public, which can be achieved by investing in public services and welfare. Tax can be collected from the public and used for the interests of the masses. The investment in medical services allows people to stay healthy as they can do physical examinations regularly or receive medical treatment when they are ill. The spending on education can improve young people’s ability to find work as they have job skills and knowledge. The expenditure on public transport, parks and recreational facilities can bring convenience to the public, and they can live a colourful life.

(5) 环保:保护生态环境和自然资源。

解释: 环境对人的健康有很大的影响,对人的生活质量也有很大影响,对经济也有影响。

解释(B-C):各种污染(空气污染、水污染、垃圾污染)减少,避免一些疾病

解释(B-C):环境保护好(树林、湖泊,海洋等保护很好),旅游观光,享受各种室外活动

解释(B-C):污染影响原材料,影响经济

词伙: natural environment, ecological assets, alleviate pollution, mitigate environmental problems, environmental damage, well preserved, go sightseeing, sustain the economic development 翻译: It is also the responsibility of the government to protect the national environment and conserve ecological assets of a country. A well-protected environment has significant implications for the well-being of citizens as well as the sustainability of economic growth. Some projects can be launched to alleviate pollution and mitigate environmental problems, such as air pollution, water contamination and the environmental damage caused by waste, which can eliminate some diseases. If forest, lakes and oceans are well preserved, people can go sightseeing and enjoy a great variety of outdoor activities. Meanwhile, the reduction of pollution can ensure resources such as water and timber are available in abundance for businesses, and the economic development of a country can thus be sustained.


02 政府类:预防犯罪的方法(主要是刑罚)

犯罪的原因:

(1) A. 没有钱 B. 他们的生活无法被保障 C. 犯罪 背景:国家没有好的福利系统,保证不了基本的生活 解释(B-C):为了活命 举例:打劫、盗窃和卖毒品

词伙: commit crime 犯罪 benefits system 福利系统 maintain a basic standard of living 维持基本的生活标准 get money to make a living 获得钱 翻译: One reason why some people commit crime is that they do not have a job or any source of income. If the country does not have a good benefits system, they will not be able to maintain a basic standard of living. They have to commit crimes, such as robberies, theft or selling drug, to get money to make a living.

(2) A贫富差异 B 因为他们觉得不公平 C 报复社会 背景:贫富差距越来越大,国家没有帮助穷人的机制 解释(B-C):人们感觉非常不公平,十分愤怒 解释(B-C):穷人感到绝望,他们维持不了基本生活,所以就会犯罪。

词伙: economic divide, a wide gap between rich and poor, economic disparity, 贫富差距 feel unfair, inequitable 感觉不公平,不平等 anti-social behaviour 反社会行为 翻译: The widening gap between rich and poor may also lead to some criminal activity as people feel unfair and resentful. The country does not have policies of income redistribution to use part of the wealth of the upper class to support those living on low income. Disadvantaged people feel hopeless, as they struggle with basic needs. They may commit offences, such as damaging public properties, to vent their anger.

(3) 行为: A 教育忽视小孩的行为,获得 教育机会有限 B 不知道行为标准 C 犯罪 背景:他们可能是贫困出身或者不知道什么是好行为和不好的行为。 解释(A-B):他们辍学,没有学习任何的法律法规。 解释(B-C):他们也不知道他们犯了会有什么后果,低估了犯罪的后果。

词伙: limited access to education没有机会接受教育 behavioural norms行为准则 翻译: Another main reason is that people do not have access to education and they do not know behavioural norms. They may be from deprived backgrounds and unaware of what is right or wrong behaviour. They may leave school early without attending lessons to learn about laws. They do not know what consequences they will have to face if they break the law, or underestimate the consequences of committing crimes.

(4) 行为: A 基因 B 决定了脾气性格 等 C 犯罪 解释(A-B ): 某些人大脑掌管情绪的部分有缺陷 解释(B -C ):比较容易动怒,缺乏通情的能力

词伙: manage emotions掌控情绪 lose temper发脾气, empathise with…理解别人的感受 show empathy 通情 翻译: Genetics can be a predictor of criminal behaviour as it determines one’s temperament and character. One section of the human brain is responsible for managing emotions, but some people are born to suffer from some emotion-handling deficit. They have difficulty in controlling anger and in empathising with others. This is why they are predisposed to violence.

(5) 家庭: A 家庭的疏忽,B 他们可能没有获得家庭的关心和照顾,没有管教 C 犯罪 背景:家长太忙了 解释(A-B):犯罪的人没有学习行为规范,因为家长太忙了没时间教他们规则的重要性 解释(A-B):孩子可能在学校有不良行为,比如说霸凌,对同班同学大吵大闹,甚至引起更严重的攻击

词伙: negligent parents 不好好管理孩子的父母 discipline children 管教孩子 offensive behaviour 攻击的行为 law-breaker 犯罪分子 inappropriate behaviour,behave poorly不端行为 翻译: Negligent parents are also to blame for the offensive behaviour of the younger generation. The law-breakers may not learn boundaries of behaviour in formative years, possibly because their parents are too busy to teach rules or not aware of the importance of discipline. Children may behave poorly at school, and inappropriate behaviour such as bullying, yelling at classmates and cursing eventually evolves into serious offences, if not corrected by adults.

(6) 媒体: A 接触暴力的信息 B 模仿 C 犯罪 解释(A-B):暴力的行为,发泄情绪 解释(A-B):低估暴力的行为的影响

词伙: violent content/image 暴力的内容,图片 copy aggressive behaviour/acts of violence 模仿攻击性行为/暴力行为 release emotions 释放情绪 overlook consequences 忽视后果 翻译: The increased exposure to violence in the media is possibly another factor contributing to crime. People play games and watch films which contain violent imagery. They may gradually recognise violence as an acceptable way of releasing negative emotions and settling conflicts, or they may overlook the consequences of acting violently.

预防犯罪的方法:

(1) A 刑罚 b 震慑 C 减少犯罪 解释(A-B):刑法让人们有可能没有自由,所以他们会三思后行 解释 (B-C):他们不想待在监狱里面,不能过正常的生活,因此选择不犯罪

词伙: a prison sentence/term, 坐牢 have a deterrent effect, deter crime 对犯罪有震慑作用 翻译: A prison sentence can be an effective way to reduce crime, as it can serve as a deterrent for those would-be law-breakers. The likelihood of losing freedom can make people think twice before violating laws. Some of them will not risk spending a number of months in jail without living a normal life, thereby choosing to obey laws.

(2) A 教育 B 提高就业能力 C 减少犯罪 解释(A-B): 教育让孩子理解可接受的和好的行为,向老师学校规则,教科书和指导 解释(A-B):一个受过教育的人能找到令人满意的工作,如果他们能获得高分,过得舒适,就不会犯罪了。

词伙: improve employability 提高教育能力 better employment outcomes更好的就业结果 翻译: The most desirable preventative measure against crime is possibly education, as schools improve skills and impart the code of conduct. Children can have a good understanding of acceptable and desirable behaviour, learning from school rules, textbooks and instructions of teachers. More importantly, well-educated people can find a satisfying job easily, if they achieve high grades at school and gain a university degree. If they live comfortably, they will never think of committing crime.

(3) A 社区服务(适合初犯、小的犯罪,青少年犯罪) B 提升责任感,避免犯罪记录的影响 C 减少犯罪 背景:社区服务适合年轻的罪犯,初犯,青少年罪犯 解释(A-B):通过做社区服务,比如:打扫街道,清除涂鸦。他们会有成为社区一员的骄傲感。 解释(A-B):这种方式不会阻碍罪犯的事业,因为他们还能继续上学,也能像其他没犯罪的人一样找到工作。

词伙: first-time offenders初犯, petty crimes 轻微罪行 juvenile delinquency 青少年犯罪 foster a sense of responsibiity 提高责任感 criminal record 犯罪记录 翻译: Community service is possibly a solution to crime as it fosters a sense of responsibility and minimises the consequences of a criminal record on one’s career. This is ideal for first-time offenders, lawbreakers under the age of 18 and those who commit petty crimes. By doing unpaid work for community, such as cleaning streets and removing grafitti, they will develop a sense of pride as meaningful members of community. Meanwhile, this kind of punishment does not threaten their career as they can still attend school and find work like law-abiding citizens. This can prevent re-offending.

(4) A 提升保安措施 B 震慑犯罪 C 减少犯罪 解释(A-B):装摄像头可以震慑人们犯罪,因为他们会被摄像头拍下来,作为成功起诉的证据。 解释(A-B):如果警察在街上巡逻,尤其是携带武器,可以对罪犯起震慑作用。

词伙: surveillance cameras 摄像头 security cameras 监视摄像头 increase visibility of police officers 增加警察的可视性 arming the police 武装警察 equipping the police with weapons 警察携带武器 翻译: The improvement of security measures is another method to fight crime. The increase in surveillance cameras can deter people from breaking laws, as their images caught by cameras are used as evidence for successful prosecution. If more police officers patrol on streets, especially when equipped with weapons, it can also have a deterrent effect on offenders. People would understand that they cannot get away with the offences they commit.

刑罚的好处:

(1) 震慑犯罪,减少犯罪率

词伙: have a deterrent effect on potential criminals, reduce crime 翻译: Imprisonment has a deterrent effect on potential criminals. It is an effective method to reduce crime.

(2) 保护守法的公民,不会受到犯人的侵害,特别是那些累犯(很难改变他们的行为)

词伙: protect law-abiding citizens, recidivist, reform their behaviour 翻译: Keeping criminals in prison can help protect law-abiding citizens from crime, especially the harm inflicted by recidivists, who cannot be reformed easily.

(1) 提高技能,他们可以找工作,重复犯罪的可能性减少,特别是对于年轻人i

词伙: improve job skills, find jobs, be less likely to reoffend, the younger generation 翻译: Young offenders who have opportunities to improve job skills can find jobs despite having a history of bad behaviour. They are less likely to reoffend.

(2) 减少和一些累犯的接触,年轻人

词伙: avoid contact with repeat offenders 翻译: This can prevent their contact with repeat offenders.

(3) 让罪犯懂得法律责任和社会责任,以后重复犯罪的机会下降

词伙: be aware of legal and social responsibility, violate laws 翻译: People who know legal and social responsibilities are less likely to violate laws.

(4) 避免犯罪记录对年轻人以后重入社会产生影响

词伙: reduce the impact of the criminal record on young people, reintegrate into society 翻译: Another advantage of education and training is that it can reduce the impact of the criminal record on young people when they attempt to reintegrate into society.


03 政府类:政府如何影响行为

如何影响行为:

(1) 知识 A 提供知识和信息 B 改变人们的态度,以教育他们做出正确的选择 C 影响人们的行为 背景:有些人不知道什么是正确的行动,通过提供知识和信息告知他们如果他们不采取正确的行动,他们将面临什么后果。 解释A-B:如果他们能在学校和媒体上获得信息,就可以教育他们做出正确的选择。 举例:在学习如何以环保的方式处理废物之前,他们应该了解回收尽可能多的废物对环境的重要性,以及在海滩上乱扔垃圾对海洋生物的威胁。

词伙: give information 提供信息 change their attitude 改变态度 take the right action 采取正确的行动 face the consequences 面对结果 make the right choice 做出正确的选择 gain access to information 获取信息 drop litter 丢垃圾 marine life 海洋生物 dispose of waste 处理废物 翻译: The government influences people’s behavior by giving information and changing their attitude. Some people do not know what is the right action and what consequences they face if they do not take the right action. They can be educated to make the right choice if they gain access to information at school and in the media. For example, they should understand the importance of recycling as much waste as possible to the environment, and the threat of dropping litter on beach to marine life, before learning how to dispose of waste in responsible ways.

(2) 法律 A 政府制定和执行法律 B 人们很难克制自己的行为 C 规范行为 解释(A-B):在某些情况下,人们很难控制自己的行为,即使他们意识到自己行为的后果,他们也很难表现出自我克制。 解释(B-C):为了遏制这种行为,政府可以通过严格的法律。

词伙: make laws 制定法律 enforce laws 执行法律 manage their behaviour 管理自己的行为 show self-restraint 表现出自我克制 be detrimental to health 对健康有害 curb such behaviour 遏制这种行为 pass strict laws 通过严格的法律 impose a tax on tobacco and alcohol 对烟酒征税 翻译: Governments can regulate behavior by making and enforcing laws. It is difficult for people to manage their behaviour in some cases, even though they realise the consequences of what they do. They have difficulty in showing self-restraint, such as stopping smoking and overdrinking, although it is common knowledge that these habits are detrimental to health. To curb such behaviour, the government can pass strict laws, for example, imposing a tax on tobacco and alcohol.

(3) 经济方面的激励 A 政府提供经济方面的奖励 C 鼓励良好的行为 背景:改变行为有时需要投资,而政府的支持可以降低改变行为的经济成本。 (A-B)有时打破老的习惯可能是不方便和困难的,所以人们应该得到一些经济奖励。 举例:政府可以为购买环保设备的公司提供一些财务优惠,为购买电动汽车等环保产品的消费者提供一些现金奖励。 举例2:如果政府希望人们乘坐公共汽车或火车而不是开车,降低公交票价

词伙: financial incentives 经济激励措施 reduce the economic cost 降低经济成本 financial concessions 减费优待 eco-friendly equipment 环保设备 cash rewards 现金奖励 purchase green products 购买环保产品 electric cars 电动汽车 break the old routine 打破常规 financial rewards 经济方面的奖励 翻译: Governments can encourage good behaviour by offering financial incentives. Changing behaviour sometimes requires investment, and government support can reduce the economic cost of a shift to new behaviour. For example, the government can provide some financial concessions for companies which buy eco-friendly equipment, and some cash rewards for consumers who purchase green products, such as electric cars. Meanwhile, sometimes breaking the old routine can be inconvenient and difficult so people deserve some financial rewards. For example, if the government wants people to travel by bus or train rather than by car, it makes sense to lower bus fares to promote such behaviour change.

(4) 科技 A 对科技的投资 B 技术创新 C 鼓励人们养成一些新的习惯 解释(A-B):除非政府愿意为科学家的研究项目买单,否则技术创新是不可能实现的,因为需要很多时间和金钱 举例:政府资助太阳能项目,很多年之后,太阳能才可以商业使用。

词伙: establish some new habits 养成新的习惯 research projects 研究项目 a massive cost 巨大花费 solar power 太阳能 government funding 政府资助 renewable energy 可再生能源 clean energy 清洁能源 翻译: The investment in technology and science can also encourage people to establish some new habits. Technological innovations are not attainable unless the government is willing to pay for the research projects of scientists, which can last for decades and incur a massive cost. For example, it took years to make solar power financially viable for individuals and organisations to use, and government funding can ensure the running of those projects intended for the development of such renewable energy. Without technological change, the transition to clean energy would be impossible.

(5) 生活方式 A 设施 B 某些行为更加方便 C 改变行为 解释(A-B):身边的环境对我们生活的许多方面都有直接的影响,比如休闲活动。 举例:政府可以建造设施(譬如说公园和体育中心)激发人们对户外活动的兴趣。

词伙: reshape people’s behaviour 重塑人们的行为 leisure activities 休闲活动 generate interest 引起人们的兴趣 outdoor activities 户外活动 sports centers 体育中心 recreational facilities 娱乐设施 翻译: The government can also invest in facilities that can reshape people’s behaviour. The physical environment has a direct impact on many aspects of our lives, such as leisure activities. In order to generate interest in outdoor activities, for instance, the government can build more parks, sports centers and recreational facilities in cities.

为什么要影响行为?

(1) 法律 A 人们有时会受到自身利益的驱使

B 做一些不道德甚至非法的事情

C 政府限制人们行为 背景:人们有时会受到自身利益的驱使。他们做一些不道德甚至非法的事情,因为他们可以从这种行为中获得利益。只有外部的限制才能阻止他们重复这种行为。 举例:一些广告商为了赚钱对他们的产品做出虚假的宣传,所以政府应该惩罚这种行为。

词伙: be driven by self-interest 被利益驱使 external restrictions 外部限制 repeat such behaviour 重复这种行为 make money 赚钱 punish this kind of behaviour 惩罚这种行为 翻译: One reason why governments need to influence people’s behavior is that people are sometimes driven by self-interest. They do something unethical or even illegal as there is something they can gain from such behaviour. In these instances, only external restrictions can stop them from repeating such behaviour. For example, some advertisers make false claims about their products to make money, so the government should punish this kind of behaviour.

(2) 个人行为 A 有些人缺乏自律 B 不遵循一些行为规范 C 政府干预 解释(A-B):随心所欲地生活是他们天性的一部分,而不是遵循一些行为规范。 解释(B-C):政府干预可以告诉他们行为的界限。

词伙: regulate people’s behavior 规范人们的行为 follow some behavioural norms 遵循一些行为准则 government intervention 政府干预 boundaries of behaviour 行为的界限 eat fast food 吃快餐 cook a meal themselves 自己做饭 promote healthy eating 提倡健康饮食 tax fast food 对快餐征税 翻译: The reason why the government needs to regulate people’s behavior is that some people are not self-disciplined enough. It is part of their nature to live their lives as they please, rather than follow some behavioural norms, and government intervention can tell them boundaries of behaviour. For example, people like eating fast food, which is tasty and convenient, rather than cooking a meal themselves, which is time-consuming. In order to promote healthy eating, the government can tax fast food.

好坏处?

(1) 经济 A 政府规范公民行为 B 减少费用 C 对经济有帮助 解释(A-B):坏习惯对经济是有影响的,而通过规范公民行为可以防止一些不必要的成本,减少开支。 举例:例如吸烟、酗酒和过着不运动的生活,这些都会增加医疗成本,并导致高的公共医疗支出。

词伙: regulate citizens’ behaviour 规范人们的行为 benefit the economy 有益于经济 prevent some unnecessary costs 避免不必要的开支 lead an inactive life 过着消极的生活 increase medical costs 增加医疗开支 expenditure on healthcare 医疗保健支出 break these unhealthy habits 破除这些不健康的习惯 medical facilities 医疗设施 翻译: Regulating citizens’ behaviour can benefit the economy as it can prevent some unnecessary costs. Bad habits can be problematic in economic terms. Examples include smoking, alcoholism and leading an inactive life, which can increase medical costs and lead to high levels of public expenditure on healthcare. If people break these unhealthy habits, they can enjoy an improvement of health condition and the government can cut the spending on hospitals and medical facilities.

(2) A 改变行为 B 大家遵守规则 C 社会和谐 解释(A-B):法律和规章通常是根据公众对什么是好的和可取的行为的看法制定的。 解释(B-C) : 禁止不好的行为,人们会表现得彬彬有礼、尊重他人。这是社会凝聚力与和谐的关键。

词伙: maintain order of society 维持社会秩序 obey rules 遵守规则 follow behavioural norms 遵守行为规范 yell at others 对别人大吼大叫 smoke in public places 在公共场合抽烟 road raging 道路暴力 sexual harrassment 性骚扰 physical assaults 身体攻击 social cohesion 社会凝聚力 翻译: It is also easy to maintain order of society if people obey rules and follow behavioural norms. Laws and regulations are normally developed based on public perceptions of what is good and desirable behaviour. Behaviours such as yelling at others, smoking in public places, road raging, sexual harrasment and physical assaults are forbidden, and people will act as polite and respectful individuals. This is the key to social cohesion and harmony.

(3) 行为 A 改变行为 B 大家觉得有约束 C 生活不自由 背景: 人们天生追求生活中的最大程度的自由,他们的生活习惯和生活方式显示出他们的需求、偏好、个性特征以及认同感。 解释(B-C):他们被要求遵守一些规则,他们必须放弃一些他们从中获得快乐的东西。

词伙: pursue maximum freedom 追求最大程度的自由 personality traits 性格特点 sense of identity 认同感 public transport 公共交通 翻译: Restrictive laws and rules can however limit freedom. People are hardwired to pursue maximum freedom in their lives, and their habits and ways of living show their needs, preferences, personality traits as well as the sense of identity. If they are required to follow some rules, they have to give up something from which they derive pleasure, such as listening to music on public transport without wearing headphones.


04 政府类:男女平等

(1) 收入 A 聘用女性 B 做某些工作更好 C 增加企业的效益 解释(A-B):女性有一些品质,例如同情心,意味着她们更乐意去倾听别人,理解别人的感受,处理别人的负面情绪。 解释(A-B):这有可能是因为女性在护理和儿童早教这一类的职业数量很多,而这种职业会要求她们去注意儿童的情感需要。 对比(A-B):反之,男性对他人的情绪就不怎么敏感。 解释(B-C):如果一个公司知人善用,那么员工就会提供给顾客卓越的服务,那么这个公司就会提升收益。

词伙: a wise decision 一个明智的决定 in some industries 在某些行业里 in some positions 在某些职业上 deal with negative emotions 处理负面情绪 emotional needs 情感需要 deliver exceptional services 提供卓越的服务 翻译: Hiring women can be a wise decision for companies in some industries, as they outperform men in some positions. Women seem to have some qualities such as empathy, meaning that they are more willing to listen to others, understand the feelings of others and do something to deal with the negative emotions experienced by others. This is possibly why they outnumber men in occupations such as nursing and early childhood education, in which they expect to be attentive to the emotional needs of children. In contrast, men appear to be less sensitive to moods of others. A company is more likely to make profits if it puts the right persons in the right positions and its employees can deliver exceptional services to customers.

(2) 收入 A 聘用女性 B 促进创新 C 企业收入增加 解释(A-B):女性与男性有着不同的生活方式,不同的家庭角色以及对人与人之间的关系的不同理解,所以她们可以在产品设计和服务上提出建议 举例(A-B):例如,在健身器材公司上班的女性会建议如何让产品去融入职业女性的日常生活,还有那些有家庭的人 解释(B-C):她们的视角能够让公司去服务更广的人群,从而增加销量

词伙: increase a company’s revenue 增加公司收入 give a new perspective 提供新的视角 in terms of 关于 interpersonal relationships 人与人之间的关系 serve a broader spectrum of users 服务更广的人群 grow sales 增加销量 翻译: Having a diverse workforce can also explore some new possibilities of increasing a company’s revenue as women can give a new perspective. Women differ from men in terms of ways of life, the roles they play in family and the understanding of interpersonal relationships, so they can possible give some advice about the design of products or services. For example, women who work for a producer of fitness equipment may give some opinions about how products can fit into the lives of busy working women, and the lives of people who have a family. Their views may provide employers with some opportunities to serve a broader spectrum of users and grow sales.

(3) 生活水准 A 聘用女性 B 获得收入 C 让家人生活更好 背景:传统来说,一位母亲就应该待在家里养育孩子,父亲则是养家糊口 背景:然而,现在这种观念已经改变,因为女性有了受教育的机会,而且工作市场里也有了更多的文员工作,她们便可以进入职场 解释(B-C):随着生活费用的提高,她们的收入对家庭也很重要

词伙: in the workforce 在职场 bring up the children 养育小孩 breadwinner 养家糊口的人 have the access to education 有接受教育的机会 clerical jobs 文员工作 cost of living 生活费用 on the rise 在上升 翻译: Another advantage of having more females in the workforce is that they can supplement family income. Traditionally, a mother was thought to stay at home and bring up the children and it is the father that should act as the breadwinner of the family. However, now this attitude has changed, as women have the access to education and there are more clerical jobs in the market, they can now enter the workforce. Their income can be important to their family, as the cost of living is on the rise.

(4) 社会文化 A 聘用女性 B 让女性有更多机会打破性别成见 C 推进男女平等 解释(A-B):因为当更多的女性进入职场,她们便有潜力去展示她们的能力并且就任高层职位 解释(A-B):她们的成就可以激励更多女性去读大学和追求事业 解释(B-C):如果更多女性承担领导角色,她们的成就能够获得异性的尊重,那么这可以帮助解决在全世界的职场性别歧视问题以及缩小男女收入差距

词伙: advance women’s rights 提升女性权益 well-qualified 具备资格的 break sex stereotypes 打破性别偏见 top jobs 高层职位 attend university 上大学 pursue a profession 追求事业 tackle gender discrimination 解决性别歧视问题 close the gender pay gap 缩小男女收入差距 assume leadership roles 担任领导角色 翻译: Increasing the number of female employees can also advance women’s rights by giving well-qualified women more opportunities to break sex stereotypes. As more women enter the job market, they have the potential to show their competence and fill more top jobs. Their achievements can encourage more young women to attend university and pursue a profession. It can tackle gender discrimination in the world of work and close the gender pay gap, if more women assume leadership roles and their performance gains respect from the opposite gender.

(5) 家庭生活 A 聘用女性 B 更少的时间陪家人 C 家庭关系不好 解释(A-B):她们必须加班加点地工作,如果她们想要晋升公司高层并且展示她们的才华 解释(A-B):她们必须要牺牲和家庭一起的时间,用来工作,以增长阅历和提高能力 解释(B-C):这样她们和孩子伴侣的关系就会疏远 解释(B-C):为家人不支持她们的工作,那么就会发生家庭争吵

词伙: employment opportunities 就业机会 balance work and family life 平衡工作和家庭生活 work long hours 加班加点地工作 climb up the corporate ladder 晋升公司高层 increase experience 增长阅历 improve skills 提高能力 翻译: Offering women employment opportunities can sometimes put them in a situation where they need to balance work and family life effectively. They have to work long hours if they intend to climb up the corporate ladder and display their talents. They have to sacrifice the time with family to work to increase experience and improve skills. This may weaken their bonding with children and marriage partners. Family quarrels can increase as their work is not supported by family.

(6) A 聘用女性 B 表现不是很好 C 影响公司 解释(A-B):女性不如男性强壮,所以公平地说,她们在某些工作上表现不行或者根本无法达到要求,比如说服兵役,消防工作和警察 解释(B-C):她们的存在很可能会让同事陷入不利的局面,例如,追捕罪犯和执行作战任务。 在这些工作上很难实现性别平等

词伙: biological challenges 生理挑战 it is fair to say 公平地说 serve the army 服兵役 fire brigades 消防队 chase criminals 追捕罪犯 accomplish combat missions 执行作战任务 achieve gender equality 实现性别平等 翻译: Some organisations may have to consider the biological challenges women have to face in some contexts. Women are not as strong as men, so it is fair to say that they would not perform well or even meet standards in some jobs, such as serving the army, working for fire brigades and joining the police forces. Their presence may put their colleagues at a disadvantage in some situations, for example, when chasing criminals and accomplishing some combat missions. It is not easy to achieve gender equality in these jobs.

(7) 收入 A 聘用女性 B 对女性员工没有足够的尊重 C 员工没有士气 解释(A-B):女性很难获得晋升 解释(A-B): 收入不公平

词伙: show respect to 尊重 unfair treatment不公平的对待 domestic responsibilities 家庭责任 maternity leave 产假 Income disparity 收入不公平 翻译: Recruiting women is possibly a tough decision for some employers who may not be able to show sufficient respect to female employees, and women in the workplace sometimes are demotivated by unfair treatment. Companies hardly prepare women for senior positions, as employers have doubts about women’s commitment to work. Women have to spend time in domestic responsibilities and maternity leave means that they can be away from the workplace for several months, which can affect the running of the company. Income disparity is another issue: women sometimes feel unfair as they receive less pay than their male colleagues working in the same position.


05 政府类:老人

老龄化积极影响:

(1) 经济:老年人可能对经济有一定帮助。 解释:可以推迟退休,要求的薪水可能不高 解释2:经验可以帮助雇主解决很多问题

词伙: postpone retirement, contribute wisdom, labour cost 翻译: Elderly people may be an asset to a country in economic terms. They may postpone retirement. In order to stay in the workforce, they may not ask for high pay. This means that it can reduce the labour cost of many companies. Meanwhile, their experience can help employers deal with many problems.

(2) 科技:A预期寿命的提高 B 人们能够增进知识 C 对社会是有益的。解释(A-B)1:他们可以继续他们的研究项目,并在他们的职位上获得新的知识。解释(A-B)2:他们也可以增加知识和建立专业知识:。解释(B-C ):知识是创新的源泉,因为他们将新知识应用于解决一些问题,或开发一些具有新发现的创新产品或服务。

词伙: impart knowledge to young people, share experience, improved life expectancy, achieve more success 翻译: The improvement of life expectancy also allows people to advance knowledge, which is of benefit to society. They may continue their research projects and gain new knowledge in their positions. It is also possible for them to increase knowledge and build expertise as they have a longer working life. Knowledge is a source of innovation, as they apply new knowledge to solving some problems or develop some innovative products or services with new discoveries.

老龄化消极影响:

(1) 经济:A老龄化 B 青年劳动力的减少 C 对经济造成压力 解释(A-B):人口老龄化通常伴随着低出生率,因为人们知道他们可以活很久,他们倾向于推迟生育。这通常意味着进入劳动市场的年轻人数量将会下降。 解释(A-B):另外一个原因是老年人可能70岁还在工作,留下更少的工作岗位给年轻人。 解释(B-C):没有精力充沛且高效率的劳动力,这些公司可能不能盈利,对这个国家的经济发展是一个威胁。

词伙: medical care, elderly-care facilities, pensions, increase spending, add a burden 翻译: One problem of population ageing is that it might damage the country’s economy as the shortage of young workers will be a problem. Population ageing is normally accompanied by a lower birth rate, as people understand they will live a longer life, they tend to delay parenthood. This normally means that the number of young people entering the workforce will drop. Another reason is that elderly people may stay in their positions even in their seventies, leaving fewer jobs available for young jobseekers. Without an energetic, creative and highly productive workforce, these companies may be unable to make profits, posing a threat to the economic progress of a country.

(2) 生活标准:A老龄化 B 它可能给医疗服务,老年护理设施和养老金体系带来压力 C 生活标准下降 解释(A-B):医疗需求通常在老年出现,老年人更容易得一些和年龄相关的疾病,比如中风,糖尿病和心脏病,这些会花很多钱。这意味着政府需要投资更多资金于医疗系统。 解释(A-B):需要建更多养老院来去服务那些日常生活有困难的老年人,而且更多的税收应该被用于养老金,这会给纳税人带来压力。

词伙: medical care, elderly-care facilities, pensions, increase spending, add a burden 翻译: Another major challenge of this trend is that it may put a strain on medical services, elderly care facilities and the pension scheme of a country. Medial needs normally appear in later years and senior citizens are prone to some ageing-related diseases such as stroke, diabetes and heart diseases, which would cost a large amount of money. This means governments have to pour more funds into medical facilities. Meanwhile, more nursing homes should be built to serve the elderly who experience difficulties in their daily lives, and more tax revenue should be allocated to pensions, which can add a burden on taxpayers. Both people in the workforce and retired people have to accept a poor standard of living if the tax revenue dwindles and the government has to charge higher tax.

(3) 家庭: A老人增加 B 抚养老人负担大 C 增加家庭矛盾。 背景:老年人更容易患有一些慢性疾病如痴呆,这意味着他们可能很难照顾好自己,独立生活,所以他们需要他们孩子的支持。 背景2:这个任务很大,年轻人不得不靠高薪养家糊口。 拓展C:这可能会导致争吵,破坏家庭关系,并损害老年人的心理健康。

词伙: the labour shortage, damage the economy 翻译: Another positive effect of population ageing is that this can result in tensions between family members if young people spend too much time looking after their parents. Elderly people are more likely to suffer from some chronic diseases such as dementia, which means that they may find it difficult to take good care of themselves and live independently, so they need the support of their children. This can be a daunting task for young people, who have to earn high salaries to feed the whole family. This might result in quarrels which can damage the family relationship as well as do harm to mental health of elderly people.

老龄化解决办法:

(1) 收入: A 老人可以继续工作上班 B 获得收入, 保持好的生活水准 C 不会给社会带来负担 解释(B-C):他们可以继续赚钱,而不是依赖养老金。有了工资,他们就能维持不错的生活水平。 解释(B-C ):保住一份工作意味着人们可以保持身体和精神上的活跃,因为他们需要每天上下班和花时间社交。这也可以减少患某些疾病的机会,这意味着政府也可以削减医疗保健的开支。

词伙: 翻译: A good choice is to continue a productive working life beyond the retirement age, which can cut the budget a country otherwise has to spend in supporting a huge population of retirees. If they do not withdraw from the workforce, they can continue to earn money, rather than rely on pensions. With salaries, they would be able to maintain a decent standard of living. Meanwhile, staying in a job means that people can stay physically and mentally active, as they need to travel to and from work every day and spend time networking. This can also reduce the chance of suffering from some medical conditions, and this means that the government can cut the expenditure on medical care as well.

(2) 家庭: A老龄化 B老年人 选择他们的孩子住在一起享受家庭生活 C 政府不需要担心照顾他们。 解释(B-C):与其他家庭成员一起生活,可以消除孤独感,与家人交谈,享受家庭生活,有利于退休人员的心理健康。 解释(B-C):老家庭成员也可以承担一些家庭责任,包括洗衣服,扫地和做饭,这可以大大减轻成年人的工作负担。这可能可以保护老年人免受一些身体或情绪健康问题。 C的拓展:他们过着幸福、健康的生活,政府将会在医疗服务上花费更少的钱。

词伙:

翻译: Elderly people can also choose to live with their children to enjoy family life,so the government does not have to worry about looking after them. Living with other members of family can combat the sense of lonelines, and talking with family as well as enjoying family life is beneficial to mental health of retired people. Old family members could also take some domestic responsibilities including doing laundry, sweeping the floor and cooking, which can greatly ease the burden on working adults. This can possibly protect them from some physical or emotional problems they could experience as they age. As they live a happy, healthy life, the government would spend less money on health services.

(3) 生活标准:A 人们注意储蓄和交社保 B 年老的时候生活标准不下降 C 解决老龄化的难题 解释(A-B):储蓄买房子,老了就不用交租,也可以通过利息来支付生活费 解释(A-B): 加入国家的养老金计划,退休了可以获得钱

词伙: save money for retirement , set aside money, maintain a reasonable quality of life in the old age buy a home, bank savings, pay rent 翻译: Another method is to encourage people to save money for retirement and enrol in the pension scheme of the government, so they have sufficient money to maintain a reasonable quality of life in the old age. They set aside money to buy a home, so they do not need to pay rent when they get old. They also use the interest income of their bank savings to cover the cost of living. As they contribute part of their income to the pension scheme, they can withdraw a proportion of money when they retire. All these efforts can reduce the cost of looking after an ever-growing gray population for a country.

老龄人与年轻人的区别:

(1) 健康:疾病增加,精力下降,不能应付高强度的工作;年轻人精力充沛,劳动力产出很高

词伙: Prone to health problems, a loss of energy, demanding jobs; energetic, productive 翻译: As people age, they are Prone to health problems. Due to a loss of energy, they have difficulty in handling demanding jobs. Young people are energetic and productive.

(2) 知识和教育:经验丰富,见多识广,思考比较全面的决定;年轻人有时候比较草率

词伙: Decades’experience, well-informed decisions; make rash decisions. 翻译: With Decades’experience, people are more capable of making well-informed decisions as they get older; in contrast, young people tend to make rash decisions.

(3) 社会: 保守,避免风险; 年轻人喜欢冒险,想法付诸实践,接受失败

词伙: Conservative, risk averse; take risks, put ideas into practice, accept failures 翻译: Older people have a Conservative attitude towards new ideas, and they are risk averse, while young people are willing to take risks, put ideas into practice and accept failures.

(4) 经济: 老年人比较节约; 年轻人喜欢追求时尚,喜欢消费

词伙: Lead a frugal ife, follow fashion 翻译: Retirees tend to Lead a frugal ife, while young people like shopping to follow fashion.

(5) 科技:老年人比较抗拒学习新的科技;年轻人喜欢接受新的思想,采用科技,与时俱进

词伙: Shy away from new technology;embrace new ideas, adopt new technology, stay abreast of changes 翻译: Old people tend to Shy away from new technology. Young people are known for their willingness to embrace new ideas, adopt new technology and stay abreast of changes.

(6) 社会: 老年人更加注意和别人的沟通,注意团结 ; 年轻人可能更加注意自己表达意见,不一定会听取别人的意见

词伙: Pay attention to communication, interpersonal relationships: express opinions, listen to others 翻译: The elderly Pay attention to communication and interpersonal relationships. By comparison, young people are keen to express opinions, instead of listening to others.


06 教育类:教育的重要性,选课和专业

(1) 知识: A 接受教育 B 获得生活的常识 C 生活比较方便 背景: 学校的课本由专家编写,涉及客观世界的基本知识,解决人们的基本问题 举例:语言可以提高交流能力,更好去描述事情,更好和别人沟通 举例: 数学可以提高计算能力,怎么省钱,怎么对比价格, 怎么平衡预算 举例:物理教你一些生活常识,电比较危险,等

词伙: real-life knowledge生活常识 attend school上学 education expert教育专家 budgeting做预算 electric equipment电器 electricity shocks电击 翻译: People gain real-life knowledge by attending school and handle matters easily in their daily lives. School textbooks are prepared and edited by education experts who consider it necessary for children to learn both theories and practical skills. Language courses can improve their communication skills, including the ability to describe a subject or issue clearly. Maths can improve mathematical skills, such as budgeting, saving money, and comparing prices. Physics can teach students some basic knowledge about life, such as the importance of handling electric equipment with care to avoid electricity shocks.

(2) 自我提高 A 接受教育 B 学习能力 C 对于以后解决问题的能力有帮助 解释:阅读课本、听课、做作业 解释(B-C):遇到问题,你知道怎么收集信息,判断什么信息有用的,迅速理解信息

词伙: study skills/techniques 学习技能 academic skills 学术技能 intellectual development 智力发展 collect/gather information 收集信息 information is useful/valid 信息有效 comprehend/grasp information 理解信息 翻译: Going to school can also improve one’s intellectual skills, which are required for decision making. They need to read textbooks, listen to instructions of teachers and do homework. All these activities can gradually help them develop competence in solving problems, such as gathering information, figuring out what informatin is useful and coming up with solutions.

(3) 政治和法律: A 接受教育 B 了解法律 C 怎么遵纪守法,社会更加能够维持秩序 背景:通过校规让学生知道某些行为是不可以接受的 举例:作弊,校园欺凌

词伙: obey laws, comply with laws, observe laws 遵守法律 maintain order 保持秩序 school rules 校规 unacceptable behavoir 难以容受的行为 cheating 欺骗 bullying 霸凌 good manner良好的教养 翻译: Schools can also teach what behaviour is legal and ethically good, so it is easy to maintain order of society if people have access to education. School rules can help students understand the behaviour that is not acceptable, such as cheating and bullying. Teachers also teach children good manners during the lesson, when children talk to classmates, interrupt others and express their views. Schools have textbooks containing fables teaching children moral lessons, so children can have a good understanding of the qualities of a respectful person, such as integrity, loyalty and honesty.

(4) 经济: A接受教育 B 专业人才 C 经济发展 解释(B-C): 处理问题更快,解决方法是准确的 解释(B-C):做一些研究,有助于创新

词伙: well-educated people 受过良好教育的人们 specialists 专家 specialised knowledge 专业知识 economic development/growth/progress/expansion 经济增长 conduct/do/carry out research 做研究 innovations 创新 翻译: As more people receive an education, it can help grow the economy. Well-educated people can solve problems faster and complete work efficiently as they are familiar with all advanced practices and tools used in industry. They have better literacy skills so they can possess information and grasp new ideas quickly. A company with college-educated employees is more productive and competitive. As people with academic qualifications are knowledgeable, they are more capable of working out creative solutions whenever they spot problems. Innovations are also important to a country’s economic growth.

(5) 健康: A接受教育 B 学会各种调整情绪的办法 C 更加健康 解释(A-B):学校的一些课程,比如说体育课和艺术课程还有一些课外活动,可以发展孩子的爱好,让他们能够放松和正确疏导压力。 解释(A-B):还有,一些有很强学术背景的人都很爱看书,这就意味着他们可以通过看书来开阔思路,遇到困难时也知道怎么解决。 解释(B-C):当他们遇到困难时也会很乐观。

词伙: manage emotions 管理情绪 extracurricular activities 课外活动 cope with stress 疏导压力 academic background 学术背景 avid reader 读书迷 confront challenges 面对挑战 翻译: Education can make people healthy, happy individuals as they learn how to manage emotions. Schools have courses such as PE and art and extracurricular activities that help children develop hobbies, which allow them to feel relaxed and cope with stress in healthy ways. In addition, people who have a strong academic background are avid readers, meaning that they can broaden their minds by reading books and understand the options available for them when they confront challenges. They would be optimistic when handling challenges.

(6) 个人发展: A 接受教育 B 知道人生各种可能 C 实现自己的才华 解释(A-B):学校里会有一些关于不同领域里的榜样的阅读材料,比如说著名的政治家、白手起家的亿万富翁、运动明星和有名望的科学家。 解释(B-C):许多年轻人会有动力去设立新的目标、实现他们的雄心壮志,而不是选择一个跟专业对口的工作。

词伙: role models 榜样 renowned politicians 著名政治家 self-made billionaires 白手起家的亿万富翁 have the motivation to 有动力 achieve ambitions 实现雄心壮志 翻译: Education can also inspire people to achieve their full potential by letting them know different possibilities in lives. Schools and universities have some reading material that shows different role models in different fields, such as renowned politicians, self-made billionaires, sports stars and famous scientists. Many young people may have the motivation to set new goals in lives and achieve their ambitions, instead of pursuing a career related to the university subject they learn.


07 教育类:影响成长的因素

(1) 身体发展:父母的起居饮食对小孩的健康有影响,父母的经济条件决定了小孩的营养

词伙: ways of life, financial situations, nourishing food 翻译: Parents also decide what children do every day, so the ways of life developed during childhood last into adulthood. The socio-economic status of parents can have a direct impact on whether children have a nutritionally balanced diet.

(2) 智力:如何和小孩玩,选择玩具,如何互动

词伙: interact with children, improve intelligence 翻译: Even buying gifts for children, playing games and other activities or decisions can affect the brain development of children. The increase in brain activity can improve intelligence.

(1) 文化:是的。解释1:更多小孩获得教育,学校里会灌输行为的规范,告诉他们怎么行为更加好。解释2:父母受教育程度比较高,他们也很注意孩子行为的教育。解释3:政府有很多宣传,告诉年轻人什么是好的行为。

词伙: school rules, discipline children, obey rules, follow behavioural norms 翻译: Children are possibly more conscious of good manners nowadays. They have wider access to education, and schools may impart a code of conduct to them and teach them how to behave well. Meanwhile, the educational level of parents is possibly higher than before, meaning that children can be taught to communicate with others in polite ways at home. The government also has some campaigns to teach the public what is acceptable behaviour, such as showing respect to others in social life.

(2) 文化:不是。解释:现在电视和游戏里有很多脏话,网络上也有很多人吐槽,小孩会觉得使用这些语言是很正常的。解释2:父母很忙,很少和小孩出去社交,小孩变得羞涩,不喜欢和人交流。解释3:教育的标准下降,校园暴力增加,小孩耳熟目染,不知道怎么和人礼貌

词伙: verbal abuse, ranting on the Internet, abusive langauge, socially competent, school bullying, physical abuse 翻译: It is argued that children today are rude and impolite. It is possibly attributed to the influence of TV programmes and games, which expose children to verbal abuse, and ranting on the Internet is so common that children think the use of abusive language is the norm. Parents are also responsible for this problem, as they spend less time socialising with others. Their children stay at home and are less sociable. They are not very socially competent. The drop in the standard of education is the third reason. School bullying has become widespread, and children who are exposed to physical or verbal abuse do not have a good idea how to be polite and respectful to others.

(1) 休闲:提供一种解脱。解释1:电视和游戏的内容非常有趣,非常刺激,很容易吸引注意力,短时间不需要去思考学习。解释2:并不需要用脑,相对来说比较轻松。

词伙: take one’s mind off, mental effort 翻译: Media can offer a type of escapism. TV programmes and games are normally interesting and stimulating. They can easily engage children’s attention and take their minds off studies for a while. Meanwhile, these activities do not require mental effort, so they are relatively relaxing.

(2) 家庭和朋友:缺乏父母的陪伴和社会的生活。解释1:父母太忙,没拥有时间和小孩在一起玩,譬如说读书,玩体育。解释2:父母没时间陪伴,他们不放心小孩出去玩,或者和小伙伴在一起,因此更加愿意孩子留在家里。

词伙: a rich social life, lead a busy life, socialise with peers 翻译: Children are addicted to playing games and watching TV because they lack the company of parents and do not have a rich social life. Adults lead a busy life so they have little time to spend with children, such as reading books and playing sport. Meanwhile, as they are not able to watch their children, they choose to keep their children at home, instead of socialising with/mixing with peers.

(3) 自我提升:有成就感。解释:游戏有奖励,觉得自己通关成功,会很开心。对比:学习相对来说比较难,然后老师和父母的期望比较高,压力大。

词伙: indulge in playing games, a sense of achievement, progress to the next level 翻译: Children indulge in gaming because they can gain a sense of achievement. Games normally present rewards when they accomplish missions, beat other players and progress to the next level. They will be happy and thrilled. In contrast, studies are challenging and stressful, especially when children consider it difficult to live up to the expectations of parents.

(4) 知识:学校关注考试,而不是小孩的业余爱好和全面发展。解释1:学校关注升学率,提高自己的竞争力,因此觉得课外活动是浪费时间的。 解释2:课外活动需要资源,包括场地和老师去支持,不会去帮助孩子提升这方面的能力。

词伙: exam factories, well-rounded education, extra-curricular activities 翻译: Children watch TV and play games because schools have become exam factories and do not pay attention to well-rounded education. Schools try to help every student pass college entrance exams in an effort/attempt to increase their competitiveness; therefore, they think extra-curricular activities are a waste of time. Meanwhile, these activities normally require resources and facilities, such as playgrounds and teachers who can teach different classes, so schools are unwilling to support these activities. Without any other way to spend free time/leisure time, children would have no choice but to watch TV or play games.

(1) 父母如果饮食健康,小孩也会少吃快餐

词伙: healthy eating 翻译: Parents have a key role to play in the physical development of children. If parents are conscious of healthy eating, their children will be less likely to eat fast food.

(2) 父母如果少看电视和上网,他们会更加多参加室外运动

词伙: outdoor activities 翻译: If parents spend less time watching TV and surfing the web, children will be more passionate about outdoor activities.

(3) 有时候,父母比较高的期望会增加孩子的压力

词伙: high expectations 翻译: The high expectations of parents can, however, put children under enormous pressure.


08 教育类:学习的热情

为什么厌学:

(1) 效率、科技。教学方法传统,学生不感兴趣。 背景:学生的注意力很难集中,完成一些重复的学习任务会觉得无聊。解释:学校可能担心各种科技影响学生学习,老师上课使用传统的教学方法,譬如说书本等,很难吸引学生注意。

词伙: short attention span, repetitive learning tasks, conventional methods, grab attention/generate interest 翻译: One reason why young people have a negative attitude towards education is that the teaching methods of teachers fail to engage students. Due to short attention span, children can feel bored if they are required to complete repetitive learning tasks. Schools do not pay attention to this problem, and they never consider the use of multimedia and electronic devices to present information in more engaging ways, because they see technology as a distraction rather than a powerful tool. Teachers are trained to teach every lesson in traditional ways, such as using textbooks, which cannot generate students’ interest in class activities.

(2) 收入。学习的内容太过理论化。背景:学生发现所学的知识和毕业以后的工作需要相差很大,学生觉得无用,对找工作也没有用。解释:学校老师自身没有工作的经验,他们经常教授理论,概念,对找工作用处不大。他们会怀疑学习的价值,对学校教育产生厌学情绪。

词伙: course content, show little interest 翻译: Another reason why students are not interested in school work is that they think the knowledge is theoretical and even useless to their job in the future. Most teachers do not have experience working in industry, and they teach theories, formulas and concepts that are possibly not used widely in the workplace. Students spend hours doing homework and digesting course content, but they may find this kind of knowledge is of little value when they graduate. They will raise questions about the value of attending school and show little interest in schooling.

(3) 个人发展。学校学习的内容也是学生厌学的理由之一。背景:学校学习以考试为主,课程也是为考试负责的。解释:老师只会教授考试技巧,而不是培养学生的兴趣爱好,丰富技能。学生觉得学的东西和他们没有关联,这让学生觉得学习没有乐趣。

词伙: exam-oriented, exam techniques, develop interests/ hobbies, diversify skills 翻译: Another reason is that the school curriculum does not help students develop talents and skills. Schools are all exam-oriented, and classes are all designed for teaching exam techniques. Teachers hardly pay attention to developing students’ interests/ hobbies and diversifying their skills. They lose the motivation to study hard if they realise that they are not gifted in what they learn.

(4) 家庭,朋友。家长老师对学生忽视也是导致学生学习没有兴趣的原因之一。 解释:老师要教很多学生,没有精力照顾有学习问题的孩子,家长上班很忙也无法顾及到他们的孩子。学生学习差,没有兴趣学习。

词伙: learning difficulties, school work, stay well-motivated 翻译: Exposure to neglect is also considered as a cause for students’ negative attitude towards school education. Teachers do not have energy to care for all students in the classroom, especially those who experience learning difficulties, while parents are busy at work and do not have time to give children sufficient support in school work. As a result, students may not stay well-motivated in education.

(5) 朋友。 同学或者朋友的行为导致其他学生的厌学。解释1:在学校可能受到欺凌,很害怕,不愿意去学校。解释2:身边小伙伴有些不好的行为,模仿,影响学习的成绩,对于学习没有信心,不感兴趣。

词伙: school bullying, copy wrong behaviour, taking drugs, school performance, low self-esteem 翻译: The negative peer pressure or behavioural problems of fellow students may be a reason why children have a negative attitude towards education. Some children are unwilling to go to school because they are the victim of school bullying. Meanwhile, some children tend to copy misbehaviour/wrong behaviour of their peers, such as playing games, taking drugs and smoking. This can have an impact on school performance/grades. They might lack confidence and have low self-esteem. That is also another reason why they are not willing to go to school to study.

提高兴趣的办法:

(1) (效率)使用高科技和现代教学方式,解释:内容比较有趣,有图像、声效,吸引学生的注意,让他们对课程更感兴趣。

词伙: teaching aids, make every class interesting and engaging, visual input, sound effects 翻译: One useful way to fuel students’ enthusiasm for studies is to use modern technology. Teachers can use some hi-tech teaching aids, such as projectors, which have stimulating content, including visual input and sound effects. This might attract students’ attention and arouse their interest in courses.

(2) (知识)其中一个解决方法是因材施教 背景:学生不同的特点,需要不同的材料、教学方法等等。解释:学生更加容易理解和掌握学习内容,对学习更加有自信和兴趣学习。

词伙: tailor courses to the levels and needs of students, build confidence 翻译: Additionally, teaching can be individualised to provide students with relevant support, thus stimulating students’ interest in school education. Students have different characteristics, meaning that they need different teaching materials or methods. If teachers can tailor courses to match the needs of learners, students can grasp course content more easily. Thus students will be motivated to study harder.

(3) (赚钱)另一个解决方法是让学生去实习。解释:让学生去实习和提高他们的动手能力,将理论和实践相结合,让他们感受到学习的实用性,更加感兴趣。

词伙: do work experience, apply theory to practice, practical implications 翻译: Another practical method to deal with the students’ aversion to education might provide them with internship opportunities. Schools can work with some companies to allow students to do work experience and apply theory to practice. Students can see the practical implications of what they learn at school and put more effort in studies.

(4) (自我提升) 关注学生的天赋。背景:每个人擅长的东西不同。解释:提供不同课程,不只是用必修课的成绩来衡量学生的优秀程度,认可学生不同科目上的天赋,这样才可以给学生自信,他们才觉得在学校可以找到自我。

词伙: natural ability, excel at, measure of excellence, build confidence, a sense of pride 翻译: Schools should also respect the talents of students. They may have the natural ability to excel at different skills or subjects. Schools should provide different courses, instead of using the performance of some core subjects as the only measure of excellence of students. THe education system should recognise their aptitude in respective areas of study, thereby helping them build confidence. This is how they can gain a sense of pride in schooling.

(5) (休闲娱乐)给孩子娱乐和玩耍的时间,学习不至于压力很大。 背景:小孩没有那么强的学习能力和精力去应付很多的作业。解释:控制作业量,让小孩觉得自己可以理解,跟得上别人,知道劳逸结合,也会更加容易保持热情。

词伙: reduce pressure 翻译: It is also important to give children time for play and leisure activities, so education will be less demanding. They do not have nergy or cognitive skills to handle tough workloads. It is therefore necessary to reduce the amount of homework to a degree where children can fully digest all information and catch up with peers. If they balance studies and leisure, they can maintain enthusiasm more easily.

(6) (自我提升) 给学生鼓励和奖励。背景:小孩对于自己未来的发展思维不清晰,他们很多时候需要别人的认可来知道自己的选择是对的。解释:老师可以通过表扬来认可学生的努力,奖品来认可他们的出色。结果:他们会更加努力。

词伙: recognise progress 翻译: Teachers can give students encouragement and rewards. Children do not have a clear idea what they intend to achieve in the future, and therefore, they need the positive reinforcement of others to gain confidence in their choices. Teachers can praise them to recognise their effort and present some rewards to acknowledge their success. They will continue to put their efforts in attaining other academic objectives.


09 教育类:成功的因素

(1) A 有道德 B 得到别人的信任 C 可以成功 解释(A-B):不会去欺骗,不会因为自己的利益牺牲别人 解释(B-C):更多合作的机会 解释(B-C):更加愿意直接交流自己的想法,效率更高

词伙: establish trust、win trust, lie to others/deceive others,out of self-interest 翻译: Successful people can win the trust of others since they have moral integrity. They would not be motivated by self-interest to do anything that is likely to hurt others, such as frauds. Mutual trust paves the way for cooperation, and this means that they work together to achieve goals. Meanwhile, it holds the key to a productive relationship, as people are willing to convey ideas openly. They can accomplish something more efficiently.

(2) A 勤奋 B 更加专业 C 可以成功 解释:学习,工作 解释(B-C):解决问题

词伙: receive an education, practical problems 翻译: Another attribute of successful people is industriousness. They put energy and time in receiving an education to gain knowledge. They also work hard to increase experience and develop expertise. What they have done will finally pay off in the future, as they are capable of dealing with some practical problems and complex tasks.

(3) A 明确的的方向和目标 B 集中注意力 C 成功 背景: 人的精力有限,而做完一个事业需要时间和精力 解释(B-C):制定计划,每天知道做什么

词伙: a sense of purpose, clear objectives, require time and energy, work out plans, make to-do lists 翻译: The successful people always have a sense of purpose, as well as clear objectives. People’s energy is limited, while achieving success in one’s career requires time and energy. They have a clear idea of what they desire to do, so they will work out a plan and make to-do lists every single day. For example, people who intend to become renowned scientists may attend science courses at school and spend many hours doing experiments in the lab, until they make meaningful strides in the areas of studies they choose.

(4) A 坚持不懈 B 不会放弃 C 成功。 背景:成功并不是一帆风顺的,在成功的路上会遇到很多挫折和失败。 解释(B-C):继续努力和奋斗。

词伙: show perseverance, persist with the course of action, build expertise, hone skills, reflect on mistakes, give advantages 翻译: Persistence is needed for having a successful career. Success is not achieved overnight, and there are setbacks and challenges on the way to success. If they can persist with a specific course of action, they will build expertise, hone skills, reflect on mistakes and optimise the methods and mechanisms of completing work, doing a project or running a business. This kind of perseverance can give them some advantages not possessed by others.

(5) A 聪明 B有好的想法 C成功 解释(A-B ):学习能力更强,记忆力更强,对知识理解更深 解释(A-B):将一些知识联系起来,想出解决办法

词伙: ingenious ideas, intellectual skills, grasp theories, creative solutions, draw upon knowledge 翻译: Some successful people are also intelligent enough to come up with some ingenious ideas that lead to success. They have exceptional intellectual skills, meaning that they can easily memorise knowledge and grasp abstract theories and concepts. They can connect different pieces of knowledge logically and develop creative solutions by drawing upon knowledge of different disciplines. This is how they can succeed by doing something unusual.

(6) A漂亮 B 有更多的朋友圈 C 成功 解释(A-B):样貌能够在工作或者社交场合给别人留下深刻的印象 解释(B-C):他们接受挑战的时候,他们都有资源可以使用

词伙: have a fulfilling career, make a favourable impression, in work or social contexts, enlarge the circle of friends, draw upon resources 翻译: Some people who have a fulfilling career are meanwhile glamorous. Their looks can make a favourable impression on others in work or social contexts, so they can enlarge the circle of friends easily. This means that they have resources to draw upon, whenever they meet challenges. When running a business, for example, they may borrow money and gain advice from friends they meet in business settings or networking events. These resources can make their business more financially viable.

(7) A 把握情绪的能力 B 和别人相处更好,处理压力 C 成功 解释(A-B):不能轻易发怒,会破坏关系 解释(A-B):遇到挫折的时候,保持乐观

词伙: manage emotions , lose temper, destroy/damage/hurt the relationship encounter difficulties/ experience setbacks, stay optimistic/positive 翻译: Successful people are also known for their high emotional intelligence, which is shown in the ability to get along well with others and to cope with stress. They would not easily lose temper, as they know it would damage their relationship with others. When they face challenges, they stay positive and their optimism can influence their followers. This is why they can maintain morale in the face of adversity and work side by side to accomplish something together.

(8) A愿意承担风险 B 愿意打破陈规 C 成功 背景:看到政策、工作方法、公司或者是行业的问题,觉得有必要根本改变根据。 背景:即便可能受到批评,或者不能成功

词伙: Act as a game changer, face criticisms, put ideas into practice, achieve fame and fortune 翻译: People who have a distinguished career also are brave enough to take risks and break the mould. When they see the drawbacks of a policy, a work practice, a business or even an industry, they feel the need to do something revoluntionary and to act as a game changer. They may fail to achieve goals or they may face criticisms from others. Despite all these difficulties, they put their ideas into practice to change the world for better. They achieve fame and fortune if they succeed in proving that their ideas are correct.

(9) A 有责任心 B 愿意帮助别人 C 成功 解释(A-B):比较通情达理,理解别人的需求和担忧 解释(B-C):最好开发出好的产品 解释(A-B):愿意帮助别人 解释(B-C):获得支持

词伙: a strong sense of responsibility, derive pleasure, empathise, devote effort to, give a helping hand 翻译: Successful people have a strong sense of responsibility and derive pleasure from helping others. They can empathise with others and understand the needs and concerns of others. This explains why they strive for excellence and devote effort to providing the best products and services that make users happy. This is a key factor contributing to business success. Meanwhile, as they are keen to give a helping hand to others, they are popular with colleagues, clients and friends. They can garner support from others easily whenever they need it.


10 文化类:音乐

(1) 生活方式 A.听音乐和玩乐器 B 放松 C 对身体好 解释:音乐可以让心情变好,让生活不那么无聊 举例:参加音乐会和在线播放音乐是一种放松活动, 可以帮人们忘记紧张的工作 举例2:可以听轻音乐,减少焦虑和帮助睡眠

词伙: play musical instrument 弹乐器 lighten one’s mood 缓和心情 alleviate boredom 缓解无聊 attend a concert 参加音乐会 stream music online 在线播放音乐 forget their stressful work 忘记压力大的工作 翻译: Listening to music and playing musical instruments can be beneficial for people’s health. Music can lighten one’s mood and alleviate boredom. Attending a concert or streaming music online is a leisure activity which can help them forget their stressful work or study for a while Listening to light music can reduce anxiety and enhance sleep quality.

(2) 文化 A. 从事音乐活动 B 体现文化差异 C 有利于文化多样性 背景:不同地区音乐传统也不同,每一种乐器,规律,形式,节奏,歌词都不一样 举例:虽然西方的音乐:流行音乐,摇滚乐,蓝调在哪里都很流行,一些不同种类的传统音乐在世界的一些部分仍然流行。比如,在中国,一些民歌仍然有自己的粉丝,还有些音乐家试图保持这些传统。

词伙: show differences between cultures展现文化的不同 music traditions 音乐传统 differ from region to region 地区和地区之间不同 folk songs 民歌 翻译: Additionally, music shows differences between cultures, and encouraging people to play music can preserve the diversity of musical styles. Musical traditions differ from region to region, and there are substantial differences in musical instruments, rhythms, genres, beats and lyrics. While western music has gained in popularity throughout the world with pop music, rock music and blues heard everywhere, some traditional varieties of music are still alive in some parts of the world. In China, for example, some folk songs still have their fan base and there are musicians who attempt to keep these traditions alive.

(3) 个人发展 A. 从事音乐活动 B 增加大脑活动 C 对学生的智力发展有一定帮助 背景:当孩子学习如何弹乐器,比如钢琴或者小提琴。可以促进某部分大脑的活动,可以帮助他们掌握肢体的活动技能,听力,存储音频信息和记忆力。 解释(B-C):这些音乐学习者比一般的孩子在外部刺激的信息处理和分析能力表现得更好

词伙: brain development脑部发展 expose young children to music 接触音乐 motor skills 肢体或者手指的活动能力 audio information 音频信息 music learners音乐学习者 information-processing 信息处理 and analysis of external stimuli外部刺激信息的分析 翻译: Music is also believed to contribute to brain development, so it is advised to expose young children to music. It is argued that when a child learns how to play an instrument, such as the piano or violin, it can boost the activity of some parts of his or her brain, which control motor skills, hearing, storing audio information and memory. These music learners may perform better than average children in terms of information-processing and the analysis of external stimuli.

(4) 经济 A.音乐是创意产业 B 带来很多生意机会 C.促进经济发展 解释(A-B):许多人选择听他们喜欢的音乐家的演唱会,看他们喜欢的音乐家的音乐节目 解释(A-B):音乐人和乐队卖专辑和纪念品赚取巨大利润 解释(B-C):创意产业创造就业机会,支持才华横溢的音乐人的音乐表演和电视节目

词伙: the music industry 音乐产业 a driver of economic growth 促进经济发展 go to the concert 去演唱会 play an exorbitant amount for…为….付出高价 watch the music shows 看音乐节目 sell albums 卖专辑 make a huge profit or mementos赚取巨额利润或者纪念品 creative industry创意产业 create numerous job创造很多工作 musical perfomance 音乐表演 TV shows电视节目 talented musicians才华横溢的音乐家 翻译: Moreover, the music industry can be a driver of economic growth. More people choose to go to the concert and pay an exorbitant amount for watching the music shows of their favourite musicians. Additionally, singers and bands sell albums to make a huge profit or mementos. For these reasons, the creative industry can create numerous jobs supporting musical performances and TV shows of talented musicians. In this sense, it can become a new engine of the economy.

(5) 社交 A 音乐 B 让人们聚在一块 C 提高社区凝聚力 解释(A-B):在社区里面有很多户外的演唱会可以免费参加,不同背景的音乐粉丝可以享受年轻的歌手的表演 解释(A-B):教堂,慈善会,社区中心,学校可以提供音乐课和场地给人们向不同乐队学习乐器和建立乐队 解释(B-C): 人们可以通过和之前没见过面的人交谈来获得一种社区感

词伙: increase community cohesion提升社区凝聚力 have some outdoor concerts有一些户外演唱会 gain a sense of community 有社区感 music courses 音乐课 form bands 建立乐队 learn instruments 学习乐器 翻译: Music can increase community cohesion by bringing people together for the same interest. The community may have some outdoor concerts that can be attended by free, and music fans from a variety of backgrounds can enjoy the performance of young singers together. Churches, charities, community centres and schools can run music courses or provide space for people to learn instruments and form bands. People can gain a sense of community by talking to those they never meet before in the same neighbourhood.

(6) 个人发展 A 音乐 B 花时间过多 C 会浪费有用的时间在其他方面的提升 解释(A-B):学习音乐会花费时间,没有音乐天赋的人可以花时间在提高工作相关的技能 解释(A-B):当办公室其他的人在学习或者工作的时候播放音乐,音乐对人们来说是一种干扰。 解释(B-C):很难做到又欣赏音乐,又不影响工作和学习

词伙: participating in music-related ativity 参加音乐相关的活动 improving work-related skills 提高工作相关的技能 be a distraction for sb 对某人来说是一种打扰 interfere with work 影响工作 翻译: However, participating in music-related ativity can consume valuable time and undermine people’s performance in the workplace or at school. Learning musical instruments takes time, and people who are not musically gifted can use time in improving work-related skills. Music can be a distraction for people, who may stream music while working in the office or studying in the classroom. It is not easy to enjoy a hit song without letting this activity interfere with work or studies.


11 文化类:艺术是否值得投资

(1) A 投资艺术 B 使一个城市更有趣和有吸引力 C 发展当地经济 背景:来自其他城市或乡村的游客被城市的艺术特色所吸引,并愿意参观一些文化景点 (B-C)他们在这些网站上的花费,以及他们在当地商店、餐馆和酒店的花费,不仅增加了当地政府的税收,而且创造了更多的就业机会。

词伙: make a city more interesting and attractive 使一个城市有趣有吸引力 attract tourists 吸引游客 develop the local economy 发展当地经济 be fancinated with 为……着迷 cities’artistic features 城市的艺术特色 cultural attractions 文化景点 tax revenue 税收 employment opportunities 就业机会 翻译: Investment in art can make a city more interesting and attractive, which can attract tourists and develop the local economy. Visitors from other cities or countries are fascinated with cities’artistic features, and willing to visit some cultural attractions, such as art galleries and museums. The money they spend on the access to these sites as well as the amount they spend in local shops, restaurants and hotels, not only increases the tax revenue of the local governments, but also creates more employment opportunities.

(2) A 对艺术投资 B 画廊的增多 C 丰富人们的文化生活 (B-C)欣赏艺术品(如雕塑、绘画和壁画等)可以让人心情愉悦,减轻压力。 (B-C)生活在一个艺术产业繁荣的城市,人们更加注重工作和私人生活的平衡。 拓展C 这有利于他们的情感健康。

词伙: enrich people’s cultural life 丰富人们的文化生活 pay a visit to 参观 cultural attractions 文化景点 art industry 艺术产业 balance between work and private life 平衡工作和私生活 翻译: The investment in art projects can lead to the proliferation of art galleries, which can enrich people’s cultural life. Appreciating artworks such as sculptures, paintings and murals can put people in a good mood, and paying a visit to cultural attractions can be a stress reducer by taking our minds off work. Living in a city where the art industry flourishes, people pay more attention to the balance between work and private life. This is beneficial to their emotional well-being.

(3) 个人发展: A 投资艺术 B 提升大家的审美能力 C 对工作有帮助 解释A-B:如果一个城市有许多视觉上吸引人的艺术品(如雕塑、纪念碑),当地居民就会逐渐对这些艺术品的构成有一个很好的概念。 解释B-C :他们将学习不同颜色、图案、图像和线条,以提高鉴赏力。 这些知识和艺术技能可以让他们在职场上受益。 举例:如准备报告、设计网站、创建备忘录和设计演示文稿。

词伙: public art 公共艺术 visual literacy 审美能力 works of art 艺术作品 local residents 当地居民 develop a good idea of 形成很好的想法,概念 artistic skills 艺术方面的技能 design a website 设计一个网站 create a memo 创建一个备忘录 devise a presentation 设计一个演讲稿 翻译: The expenditure on public art can also improve the visual literacy of the public, which can be applied to work. If a city has numerous visually attractive sculptures, monuments and works of art, local residents will gradually develop a good idea of what constitutes artistically beautiful items. They will learn the functions of different colours, patterns, images and lines in improving the visual appeal of a physical object. This kind of knowledge can benefit them in the workplace, when they harness their artistic skills to prepare reports, design a website, create a memo and devise a presentation.

(4) 社会和文化 A 对艺术的投资 B 传统艺术得到支持 C 保护文化的多样性 背景: 艺术代表着一个国家的文化和历史,投资于保护各种艺术形式,特别是民间艺术,使后人有可能记住他们国家的艺术成就。 如果没有国家的支持,手工艺、纺织产品和饰品的艺术技能在未来可能会消失,因为这些行业在年轻人中已经不受欢迎。 C拓展: 对一个国家来说,失去这些艺术传统可能是一场悲剧,因为这些传统技能与一些人的认同感有关,而艺术的多样性可以让一个社会保持趣味。

词伙: cultural diversity 文化多样性 folk art 民间艺术 artistic achievements 艺术成就 artistic skills 艺术方面的技能 make handicrafts 制作手工艺品 textile products 纺织品 die out 消亡 lose popularity 失去人气 artistic traditions 艺术传统 traditional skills 传统的技能 sense of identity 认同感 翻译: The investment in art can also help preserve rich cultural diversity. Art represents culture and history of a country, and the investment in the preservation of various art forms, especially folk art, makes it possible for future generations to remember the artistic achievements of their country. Without the support from the state, the artistic skills in making handicrafts, textile products and accessories would possibly die out in the future, as these trades have lost popularity among young people. The loss of these artistic traditions may be a tragedy for a country, as these traditional skills are a connection to the sense of identity of some people and the diversity of art can keep a society interesting.

(5) 家庭和社交 A 艺术活动 B 提供人们聚在一起的机会 C 使人们更好地了解彼此,增加交流 背景:艺术是一种重要的表达形式,是一种人类通用的语言。 解释 A-B: 在很大程度上,艺术活动可以为不同地区、不同年龄、不同性别、不同种族的人们提供聚在一起的机会。 举例1:一些艺术中心有时会举办展览,展示本地艺术爱好者的作品,并吸引社区成员。 举例2:共同制作艺术品也是一种非常棒的亲子活动。 解释 B-C:通过这些聚在一起的机会,增加彼此的了解和交流。

词伙: talking points 交谈的话题 a universal human language 人类通用的语言 art centres 艺术中心 local art lovers 当地艺术爱好者 works of art 艺术作品 parent-child activity 亲子活动 gain an insight into 洞察 翻译: Art activities can bring people together and act as talking points. Art is an important form of expression and a universal human language. In general, art activities can provide opportunities for people of different regions, ages, genders and races to gather together, thus providing people with the opportunity o know each other better. For example, some art centres sometimes organise exhibitions that show artworks of local art lovers and attract members of community. They gather to appreciate the works of art, and exchange views in seminars and meetings. Making artworks together also makes an extraordinary parent-child activity, and parents can gain an insight into the thinking of children by artworks. This can benefit the bonding of members of family.

(1) 经济 A 政府对艺术投资 B 花费大 C 影响城市的发展 背景:政府的预算是有限的。 解释(B-C):在艺术上的花费可以分配给其他行业。在人们难以维持基本生活水平的社区,他们会呼吁政府优先提供公共交通、医疗和教育。 如果人们要花很多钱在这些服务上,他们的可支配收入减少,消费力减少会影响经济的发展。

词伙: spiritual needs 精神需求 government budget 政府预算 use up the money 花光钱 public services 公共服务 struggle with a basic standard of living 难以维持基本的生活水准 public transport 公共交通 翻译: Although the governments’ investment in art can help better meet people’s spiritual needs, it can be costly and present obstacles to the development of a city. The government budget is limited, and the spending on art can use up the money which can otherwise be allocated to other industries and public services. In communities where people struggle with a basic standard of living, they would call on the state to prioritise the provision of public transport, healthcare and education. They would not support the funding for art, which is regarded as a luxury. The expenditure on education and medicla care can reduce disposable income, and lower consumer spending can undermine economic growth.

(1) 个人发展 A 学习历史 B 可以借鉴经验和避免错误 C 获得成功 背景:历史单调的重复,有很多永恒的规则 举例:2018年的经济危机告诉我们不要乱花钱 举例2:当我们不知道经济危机持续多久,历史告诉我们经济危机之后总会复苏和腾飞

词伙: repeats itself 自我重复 historical events 历史事件 timeless rules 永恒的规则 draw upon the experience of 从…吸取经验 avoid mistakes 避免犯错 翻译: Learning history enables us to draw upon the experiences of the past and helps us avoid mistakes. History always repeats itself, and there are some timeless rules we can follow to handle similar problems. For example, when we borrow money from banks to buy luxuries, we need to bear in mind the risk of overspending-one habit linked to the financial crisis in 2018. Likewise, when we are anxious about the lasting impact of an economic slowdown, economists may suggest that in history, every economic downturn is followed by a recovery and a boom. In other words, history can give us guidance when making important decisions and allay our fear.

(2) 个人发展 A 学习历史 B 提高批判性思维 C 更加谨慎 背景: 不同的人对历史事件的描述不同,体现了政见和价值观 解释(A-B):人们会思考为什么会有这么一些不同 解释(B-C):最后看信息会比较谨慎,有批判性

词伙: critical thinking skills 批判性思维 political opinions/views 政治观点 information is reliable/trustworthy/credible 可靠的信息 evaluate information critically 批判地去评估信息 weigh up pros and cons of … 权衡利弊 翻译: Learning history will help individuals improve their critical thinking skills. Historians have different accounts of historic events, showing differences in value systems, political opinions and attitudes. People who read history books and watch documentaries will be curious about sometimes contrasting views about the same historical figure. This is how they gradually realise history books do not invariably reflect facts, and in many cases, these books simply show the views of authors. They will become critical of the information they receive.

(3) 文化 A 学习历史 B 了解文化的根源 C 提升文化认同感,增加和不同国家的人交往的能力 解释: 历史和文化息息相关。一个国家早期的发展决定了某些传统的进化 举例:某些国家的主食里有海鲜,主要是因为渔业是它们主要的收入来源

词伙: cultural root 文化根源 enhance a sense of cultural identity 提升文化认同感 翻译: The study of history can increase awareness of cultural roots and enhance a sense of cultural identity. A country’s culture is intertwined with its history. The development of a country in early stages determines the evolution of some traditions, such as cuisine, the main livelihoods, ways of dressing and crafts. For example, seafood remains an intergral part of the diet of families in some countries such as Japan, in large part due to the fact that fishing used to a primary source of income for these nations. Young people who have a good understanding of the historical development of their country will make a conscious effort to keep their traditions alive.

(4) 效率 A 学习历史 B 和生活联系不大 C 浪费时间 解释(背景):世界不断改变, 历史事件学到的知识和规则未必管用 举例:某些不道德的商业做法可以帮助某些人赚钱,但是因为法律和网络科技的发展,公司会在网络上因为不道德或者不合法的行为被批评或者惩罚

词伙: significant events 有意义的事件 detect/identify patterns 发现规律 practical skills 实践技能 a waste of time 浪费时间 翻译: Learning history can be a waste of time, since it may not have relevance to modern life. The world is changing constantly, and the rules and empirical knowledge learned from historical events are possibly not applicable in today’s world. For example, in the past, some unethical business practices could help some businesspeople make money, but today, due to strict business laws and the Internet technology, companies can attract criticisms online and face punishment for immoral or illegal behaviour.

(5) 知识 A 学习历史 B 被误导 C 错误的观念 解释:教科书有意加入一些历史事件,但是没有说其他的,为了影响读者对过去事件的看法 解释:当描述一个事件的时候,教科书有很多论断,但是没有很多的证据 解释(B-C):小孩会有错误的看法

词伙: manipulate the public/readers 操控读者 form misconceptions/ have some misconceived ideas 形成错误的观念 read textbooks 阅读教科书 show the thoughts of politicians 体现政客的主张 翻译: History textbooks may sometimes be used by the government to manipulate the public. Textbooks may deliberately include some historical events but simply ignore others in order to distort readers’ views of what happened in the past. When recollecting a significant event in history, history books make some claims which are not supported by strong evidence. Students who read these books may have some mistaken ideas about history.


12 文化类:博物馆是否值得保留

(1) A 投资博物馆 B 丰富生活 C 放松, 提高一下艺术的素养 解释(A-B):看文物,古代的艺术品 解释(A-B):提供各种娱乐,包括游戏等

词伙: enrich cultural lives 丰富文化生活 historically important items/objects 具有历史重要性的物件 works of art/creative works 艺术品 improve visual literacy 提高视觉素养 翻译: Keeping public museums operating can enrich cultural lives. People take pride in the achievements of ancestors when seeing objects, artworks and antiques in museums. Some museums have also sought to provide different forms of entertainment, such as movies and interactive games, which allow people to learn about history in engaging ways.

(2) 经济 A 投资博物馆 B 成为景点 C 赚钱 解释(A-B): 了解历史、文化、重大的历史事件 解释(B-C):收门票,卖一些纪念品,其他行业发展

词伙: tourist attraction 旅游景点 cultural attraction 文化景点 historical attraction 历史景点 翻译: Museums are sometimes important tourist attractions that can generate revenue for local communities. They charge admission fees and have gift shops that sell souveniors to make money. Some museums are meanwhile landmarks of a city, which are famous for architectural styles and famous monuments. Without these cultural attractions, some cities would fail to attract visitors.

(3) 文化 A 投资博物馆 B 保护文物 C 有助于文化的传承 解释(A-B):专人去修补和维护易碎的文物 解释(B-C): 让人铭记历史,以自己祖先的成就为豪

词伙: preserve cultural heritage 保存文化遗产 repair fragile items/objects 修复易碎物件 a connection to the past 与过去的联系 翻译: Investing in museums can help preserve cultural relics and protect heritage. Museums hire professionals to repair and maintain fragile items. With government funding and donations made by individual visitors, museums can amass collections, which are a vital connection to the past. Without organisations running for this purpose, historically significant items are possibly held by private collectors and cannot be preserved easily.

(4) 经济 A 投资博物馆 B 费用很高 C 浪费钱 背景:不喜欢去博物馆,趣味不够,赚不了门票 背景:虚拟博物馆,可以网络上看 解释(A-B):请人去管理

词伙: less entertaining 没有趣味 admission fees/entry fees 门票 virtual museums/ digital museums 虚拟博物馆 翻译: Running a museum costs a large amount of money and some people may argue that this kind of expenditure is unnecessary. Museums sometimes fail to attract visitors, as there are other more interesting attractions, such as amusement parks. In this case, museums cannot break even easily. Additionally, some people prefer to go to virtual museums, which are free and open 24 hours a day. This is particularly the case when VR technology has developed to a point where viewing an exhibit at home is basically the same as looking at it personally in a real museum. Finally, museums need to hire staff for management and professionals to repair and restore fragile works of art.

(5) 文化 A 投资博物馆 B 管理不好 C 破坏 解释:安保不好,被偷 解释:游客不小心破坏

词伙: poor management/not managed well 管理不善 security measures, facilities 安保措施 翻译: The management of the museums is another issue, and objects of cultural interest can be damaged or stolen due to poor management. If the security of museums can not be guaranteed, some valuable items will be stolen. The exhibition of some ancient objects should be handled with care, as these items can be damaged easily when exposed to strong wind and lighting. It is not easy to reach a balance between displaying these items and protecting them.

13 科技类:医疗科技和服务

(1) 经济发展 A投资医疗 B 提高人们的健康,工作表现 C 经济发展 背景:政府投资的医院和诊所提供公众免费的体检,让人们定期检查。 解释(A-B)如果他们得病了,可以立刻接受治疗。他们可以遵循医生的指示,过上健康的生活,减轻生病的风险 解释(B-C)公共费用会减少药物和手术的价格,所以人们可以接受医疗照顾,当他们生病和康复的时候。这样他们能够保持健康和多产。一个健康的劳动力是经济稳定发展的必要。

词伙: medical services 医疗服务 improve their health and their work performance 提高健康和工作表现 be beneficial to the economy 对经济有好处 government-funded hospitals and clinics 政府资助的医院和诊所 free physical examination 免费的体检 receive treatment 接受治疗 be diagnoesed with some conditions 被诊断出各种问题 follow the instructions 遵循医嘱 live a healthy life 过一个健康的生活 reduce the risk of illness 减轻疾病的危害 public expenditure 公众花费 reduce the price of the medicines and surgeries 减少药物和治疗的价格 receive medical attention 接受治疗 fall ill 生病 recover from ilness 康复 remain healthy and productive 仍然健康和高产 a healthy workforce 一个健康的劳动力 sustain economic growth 维持经济增长 翻译: Spending public money in medical services can help people improve their health and their work performance, which is beneficial to the economy. Government-funded hospitals and clinics can provide the public with free physical examination, allowing people to check their health regularly. They can receive treatment as soon as possible if they are diagnosed with some conditions. They can also follow the instructions of doctors to live a healthy life, which can reduce the risk of illness. Public expenditure will also reduce the price of medicines and surgeries, so people can receive medical attention whenever they fall ill and recover from illness. In this case, they can remain healthy and productive. A healthy workforce is essential to sustained economic growth.

(2) 生活标准 A投资医疗 B 提高人们的健康水平 C让人们生活的更加幸福 背景:如果人们生病了,他们觉得不舒服,没有心情做任何事情。一个健康的身体是过上有意义的生活的前提。 解释(B-C)他们可以尽可能努力地获得目标,去远方的小岛度假,打球,这些都是需要体力的。所有的这些选择都让他们有满足感

词伙: enhance people’s health level 提高人们的健康水平 make them happy 让他们开心 suffer from illness 深受疾病的痛苦 feel uncomfortable 感到不舒服 living a meaning life 过上有意义的生活 achieve ambitions 实现自己的梦想 take a vacation 度假 play some sports 玩体育 physically demanding 有体力需求的 give a sense of satisfaction 有满足感 翻译: Another benefit of putting more money in medical care is that it can enhance people’s health level and make them happy. If people suffer from illness, they will feel uncomfortable and do not have mood to do anything. A healthy body is the precondition for living a meaningful life. They can work as hard as they like to achieve ambitions, go to a far-flung island to take a vacation and play some sports which are physically demanding. All these choices can give them a sense of satisfaction.

(3) 法律 A投资医疗 B 解决穷人看病难得问题 C 消除社会不平等 背景:穷人没有钱买药或者和医生预约 解释(A-B)如果政府能够投入更多资助在医疗上,那么医疗保健就会便宜,减少贫困病人在医药上面的花销,让他们买的起药 解释(B-C)穷人买的起药,可以减少贫富之间的差距

词伙: an effective way to do sth一个有效的方法去… help economically disadvantaged people 帮助穷人 deal with their medical problems 解决医疗问题 eliminate social inquality 解除社会不平等 buy medicines买药 make an appiontment预约 lower expenses in healthcare 医疗保健费用更少 reduce the poor patients’ expenditure in medicines 减少贫穷病人的药物费用 make medicines afforable to them 买得起药 reduce the inequality between rich and poor 减少贫富不平等 翻译: Moreover, it is an effective way to help economically disadvantaged people deal with their medical problems, thereby helping to eliminate social inequality. Poor people do not have money to buy medicines or make an appiontment with a doctor. If the government can put more funds in medical care, the lower expenses in healthcare can reduce the poor patients’ expenditure in medicines and make the medicines affordable to them. Therefore, it aslo reduce the inequality between rich and poor.

(1) 生活质量 A.投资医疗 B.投资医疗会使得医疗质量减低 C.医疗设施不好,人手不足 背景:低价或者免费的医疗服务会被过度使用,当他们生病的时候,人们会更倾向去看医生 解释(A-B)政府没有钱去保证为大众提供质量统一的服务 解释(B-C)另外免费的医疗意味着医务人员工资不高,整个行业都会无法吸引人才。医院没有足够的医生和护士去满足病人的需求,排长队会成为常态

词伙: spend public money in medicial services 将公共资金用于医疗服务 medical services 医疗服务 low-cost or free medical services can be overused 便宜的或者免费的医疗服务会被过度使用 feel unwell 感觉不好 run out of money 不够钱 provide services of consistent quality for the public 为公众提供品质一致的服务 free medicial care 免费的医疗 medical personnel 医务人员 well-paid 工资高 attract talent 吸引人才 meet the needs of patients 满足病人的需求 翻译: But spending public money in medical services has its drawback: it is difficult to maintain the quality of medical services and hospitals are understaffed. Low-cost or free medical services can be overused, and people tend to see the doctor whenever they feel unwell. The government will soon run out of money to provide services of consistent quality for the public. In addition, free medical care means that medical personnel are not well-paid and that the whole industry will fail to attract talent in the long run. Hospitals do not have sufficient doctors and nurses to meet the needs of patients, and the long waiting line will become the norm.

(2) 健康 A投资医疗 B 人们不注意生活方式 C 生病增加 背景:他们觉得身体有问题,他们就会使用免费的全民医疗 解释(A-B)健康生活方式已经不在他们的考虑范围之内 举例:医疗状况比如由于过度饮食引起的肥胖,而由吸烟导致的肺癌会大大地增长 C的拓展:给医疗系统带来压力。

词伙: pay less attention to…更少关注 lifestyle-related health problems 生活习惯相关的健康问题 universal medical care 免费的全民医疗 adopt a healthy lifestyle 实施健康的生活方式 medical conditions 医疗条件 obesity 肥胖 overeating 进食过量 lung cancer 肺癌 increase pressure on medical system 给医疗系统增加压力 翻译: Another danger is that people will pay less attention to healthy living and lifestyle-related health problems will become pervasive. They think if they have medical problems, they can turn to universal medical care, and adopting a healthy lifestyle is no longer regarded as necessary. As a result, medical conditions for such as obesity caused by overeating and lung cancer attributed to smoking will increase dramatically, increasing more pressure on the medical system.

(3) 经济 A.免费的医疗 B. 对私立医院是个冲击 C.影响市场竞争 背景:国家资助的医疗保障会减少对私人医院的需要,因为它们更高标准的服务和更复杂的仪器而收费更高 解释(A-B)一些私人医院或许会破产因为他们无法赚钱支持他们的生意 解释(C的结果)经济可能无法从医疗部门的收入获益

词伙: free medical care 免费的医疗 distort the market 扭曲市场 pose a threat to 对…带来威胁 state-subsided healthcare 国家资助的医疗保健 reduce the demand for private medical services减少私人医疗服务的需要 charge higher prices 收费更高 higher standards of service 更高标准的服务 sphisticated quipment 精密的仪器 private hospitals私人企业 fail to earn money to support their business 无法赚钱支持他们的生意 the medical sector 医疗部门 翻译: The provision of free medical care can distort the market and pose a threat to private providers of medical care. The access to state-subsidised healthcare can reduce the demand for private medical services, as they normally charge higher prices for higher standards of service and more sophisticated equipment. Some privatel hospitals may go bankrupt as they fail to earn money to support their business. The economy may not be able to benefit from the revenue of the medical sector.


14 科技类:农业技术

(1) 经济:促进经济发展 解释:例如,化学肥料的应用和高产作物的发展,加快了粮食作物的生长,从而提高了产量。同时,化学物质可以用来延缓水果的成熟并延长新鲜农产品的保质期,因此农民生产的食物更有可能被送到食客手中,而不是腐坏或腐烂。最后,转基因食品的发明,如抗虫害和干旱的食品,可以增加丰收的机会。粮食生产和销售得越多,个人和企业会挣钱越多。

词伙: boost the economy,application of chemical fertilisers, the development of high-yield crops,speed up the growth of food plants, increase crop yields,delay ripening of fruit ,extend the shelf life,be delivered to , be resistant to pests and droughts, increase the chance of good harvests 翻译: Technological advances in farming and food production can boost the economy. The application of chemical fertilisers and the development of high-yield crops, for example, speed up the growth of food plants, thereby increasing yields. Meanwhile, chemicals can be used to delay ripening of fruit and extend the shelf life of fresh produce, so the food produced by farmers is more likely to be delivered to eaters, rather than being spoiled or rotten. Finally, the invention of GM food, such as those resistant to pests and droughts, can increase the chance of good harvests. If more food is produced and sold, individuals and businesses can certainly make more money.

(2) 生活质量: 解决粮食短缺问题,增加选择性,提高生活水平 解释: 现代饲养方法,如在有限空间圈养动物,可以防止能量损失,保证所有农场产肉率增加。这种措施可以稳定食品供应量并解决世界性的饥荒。另外,新品种食物,如无籽瓜和人造肉等,增加了饮食的多样性。此外,食品运输和制冷服务及设施可以远距离、跨区域向消费者提供食品。这些在满足胃口的同时,也帮助我们建立了均衡的饮食。

词伙: address the food shortage,give people more choices, contemporary farming methods,keep animals in small enclosures, prevent energy loss, deal with food security issues,fight hunger worldwide, add more choices to our diet,food transportation,refrigeration services and facilities ,travel long distances to,satisfy our appetite for food,have a balanced diet 翻译: The increase in food production can also address the food shortage and give people more choices, thereby improving the standard of living. Contemporary farming methods, such as keeping animals in small enclosures to prevent energy loss, can ensure that more meat is produced by every farm. It can deal with food security issues and fight hunger worldwide. Additionally, the creation of some new food varieties, such as seedless melon and some man-made meat products, can add more choices to our diet. What’s more, the development in food transportation and refrigeration services and facilities allow food to travel long distances to consumers in different regions. It not only satisfies our appetite for food but also helps us to have a balanced diet.

(3) 费用:先进农业技术,降低食物成本。 解释:转基因技术已成功培育出具有特殊性能的新品种,如抗病毒、抗虫、抗寒、耐盐、耐碱等。因此,食物可以在恶劣的条件下生产。更高的食物产量可以稳定甚至降低食品成本,降低大都数消费者的生活成本。

词伙: lead to lower food prices, transgenic technology, cultivate new species ,virus and pest-resistant, cold-resistant,salt and alkali-resistant,harsh conditions,cut food costs ,reduce the cost of living 翻译: The innovations in food technology can also lead to lower food prices. Transgenic technology has successfully cultivated new species which have special qualities, like virus and pest-resistant, cold-resistant,salt and alkali-resistant. It means that food can be produced in harsh conditions. Higher food yields can help stabilise or even cut food costs for most consumers, reducing the cost of living for them.

(4) 环境:农业先进技术,减少对自然资源的使用 解释:一些创新的耕作做法可能有利于环境。这些做法减少了对土地等自然资源的使用。例如,室内农业和无土壤农业不使用可耕地,却可以供应食物。这意味着农民不需要清理土地和砍伐树木来耕作。同时,集约化耕作等方法也可以减少土地的使用。

词伙: innovative farming practices,be beneficial to the environment,reduce the use of natural resources,indoor farming and soil-free farming,arable land,clear land and cut down trees,intensive farming 翻译: Some innovative farming practices can be beneficial to the environment. These practices reduce the use of natural resources, such as land. For example, indoor farming and soil-free farming can provide food without using arable land. This means that farmers do not have to clear land and cut down trees for farming. Meanwhile, methods such as intensive farming can also reduces the use of land.

(1) 环境:破坏和污染环境。 解释:人造化肥和农药在农业中的大量使用会引起土地退化,这些有毒物质也会污染地下水源。食物生产中使用的机械和不同的交通工具会增加排放。集约农业会增加能源消耗,因为动物供暖会消耗更多电能。更让人心忧的是转基因植物的栽培会减少作物多样性,因为人们逐渐舍弃传统作物。这对生态系统的影响是不可估量的,因为基因库会从根本上发生改变。

词伙: cutting-edge agricultural technology,damage and pollute the environment,massive use of man-made fertilizers and pesticides,cause land degradation, pollute underground water sources ,machinery and different means of transportation,increase emissions,increase energy consumption, keep animals warm,cultivation of GE crops, reduce diversity of crops, change the gene pool fundamentally 翻译: On the other hand, cutting-edge agricultural technology can damage and pollute the environment. The massive use of man-made fertilizers and pesticides in farming can cause land degradation, and toxins can pollute underground water sources. Machinery and different means of transportation used in food production can increase emissions. Intensive farming can increase energy consumption, as more electricity is used to keep animals warm. An even more worrying problem is the cultivation of GE crops, which can reduce diversity of crops, as people gradually abandon those conventional plants. The effect on the ecosystem is immeasurable as the gene pool can be changed fundamentally.

(2) 健康:可能会对身体有害。 解释: 在植物和动物生产过程中使用的化肥和农药这些有毒物质或者抗生素等,会导致毒素残留在植物或动物体内,从而引起食用者食物中毒。而有些转基因生物产品也可能含有有毒物质和过敏源,会对人体健康产生不利影响,严重的甚至可以致癌或导致某些遗传疾病。

词伙: do harm to,chemical fertilizers and pesticides , toxic substances or antibiotics, poisoning of food users, genetically modified biological products,contain toxic substances and allergens, have adverse effects on human health, cause cancer or lead to certain genetic diseases 翻译: Another negative effect is the possible harm the modern technology may do to human beings.Chemical fertilizers and pesticides used in the production of plants and animals, such as toxic substances or antibiotics, will cause toxins to remain in plants or animals, which will lead to poisoning of food users. Some genetically modified biological products may also contain toxic substances and allergens, which may have adverse effects on human health, and may even cause cancer or lead to certain genetic diseases.


15 科技类:机械化和家庭电器使用对我们的影响

(1) 收入和生活质量:A 机械化 B 大批量生产 C 价格下降 解释(B-C):公司不用请这么多人,人力费用下降 解释(B-C):用于生产所需产品的费用,包括电,下降 解释(C的好处):同样的钱,可以买更多东西,提高生活标准 产品竞争力,对经济有一定的好处

词伙: mass produced, labour cost, electricity bills, manufacturing costs 翻译: One benefit of using machines is that products can be mass produced and prices can drop, which can benefit consumers and the whole society. Because of mechanization, companies do not need to hire many employees, and the labour cost declines. Meanwhile, manufacturing costs, including electricity bills, will also be reduced. This means that consumers can purchase more goods with the same amount of money, and enjoy an improvement in the standard of living. A drop in the production costs can also make products more competitive, thereby contributing to economic growth.

(2) 经济:A 机械化 B 提高效率,产品质量,降低成本, 减少雇佣 C 企业利润上升 解释(A-B):机器可以比人类工人更准确、更有效地执行重复的任务,这意味着自动化工厂可以比依赖人类劳动的工厂更快地完成订单,创造更多的收入。 解释(A-B):机器24小时运转,不像人一样感到疲劳和负面情绪,所以机器制造的产品通常比手工制造的质量更高。 解释(A-B):机械化允许公司雇佣更少的人,从而降低劳动力成本,增加公司利润。

词伙: maximise the profit, the running cost, repetitive tasks, automated factory, fill orders, human labour, machine-made products, made by hand, labour cost, increase corporate profits 翻译: Mechanization can maximise the profit of companies by enhancing production efficiency, improving product quality and cutting the running cost. Machines can perform repetitive tasks more accurately and efficiently than human workers, meaning that an automated factory can fill orders faster and create more revenue than a plant relying on human labour. Meanwhile, machines operate 247 without experiencing fatigue and negative emotions like human beings, so machine-made products are normally of higher quality than those made by hand. Finally, mechanisation allows firms to employ fewer people, thus reducing the labour cost and increasing corporate profits.

(3) 健康:A机械化B 完成工作更快 C 更多时间去休闲,发展自己的兴趣爱好 解释(A-B):机器由程序控制,可以24小时工作 解释(C的拓展):工作不会压力很大,可以保持健康,幸福感更强 解释(C的拓展):和工作相关的事故会减少,减少医疗系统的费用

词伙: complete work, leisure activites, develop hobbies, stressful work, experience a sense of well-being, work-related accidents, the medical system 翻译: Another advantage is that machines are able to complete work efficiently and people have more time to do leisure activities and develop hobbies/interests. Machines can operate 24 hours a day as they are controlled by programmes. These machines can free people from stressful work, so workers can have more leisure time and experience a sense of well-being. As people have more leisure time to relax and cope with fatigue, work-related accidents will decline and the spending on the medical system will be reduced.

(4) 科技:A机械化B 人们不用作那么多重复性工作 C 科技创新 解释 A机械化B 人们不用做那么多重复性工作 C 科技创新 (A-B): 由于机器处理手工工作,人们可以花宝贵的时间读书,获取知识,进行实验,检查工作程序和测试他们的创造性想法。这些都为科技创新铺平了道路。 (A-B): 企业可以使用他们曾经用来雇佣员工的资金进行研发。这些公司将有更多的发明。

词伙: technological innovation, manual work, carry out experiments, creative ideas, research and development 翻译: Mechanization can free people from doing repetitive work, which can help to contribute to their technological innovation. As machines take care of manual work, people can spend their valuable time reading books, gaining knowledge, carrying out experiments, examining work procedures and testing their creative ideas. All these tasks pave the way for scientific and technological innovations. Additionally, enterprises can use the money that they once used to hire workers for research and development. These companies will have more inventions.

(1) 经济:A机械化 B 很多人失业 C 对经济有影响 解释(a-b):机器很少犯错,自动化工厂只需要几个人就可以管理 解释(B-C):消费力下降,公司利润会下降 解释(C的拓展):很多人的生活水准会下降

词伙: lose jobs, in the short run, an automated factory, cut jobs, public consumption, damage/hurt the economy, hurt the standard of living 翻译: On the other hand, one possible consequence of mechanization is that some people may lose jobs and unemployment may have an impact on the economic growth in the short run. Machines hardly make mistakes and an automated factory only needs several workers to manage; therefore, companies can cut jobs. Public consumption decreases and companies create less revenue, thereby damaging/hurting the economy. It can hurt the standard of living of those people who are unable to retrain for new employment.

(2) 法律:A 机械化 B 很多人失业C 治安不是很好 解释 A 机械化 B 很多人失业C 治安不是很好 (A-B)在机械化时代,大量的机器可以代替人工操作,因为它们的产量更高,性能更好。工厂工人可能会失去工作,如果他们没有受过良好的教育,他们就无法再培训去接受市场上的其他职位。 (B-C)如果失业率大涨,很可能会引起民众强烈不满,甚至会导致他们有反社会的行为,这会引起社会的动荡和不安。

词伙: have a negative impact on/ manual operation/factory workers/ lose jobs/job requirements/ repetitive work/ jobless rate/ unemployment rate/ anti - social behaviour/ social unrest 翻译: Mechanization may be a threat to public order since it may make many people unemployed. In the era of mechanization, a large number of machines can replace the manual operation, due to their higher output and better performance. Factory workers may lose their jobs, and if they are not well-educated, they are not able to retrain for other positions in the job market. A higher unemployment rate may even result in an increase in anti - social behaviour and cause social unrest as jobless people are unhappy with the standard of living.

(3) 社会文化:A 机械化B 很多传统手工艺会消失 C 影响产品多样性 解释(A-B):与大量生产的产品相比,许多传统手工艺品可能要花费更长的时间和更多的成本来生产,所以生产成本可能更高,利润可能更小。 解释(A-B):对于消费者来说,他们可能更喜欢购买机器制造的产品,这些产品通常可以以较低的成本获得。由于工匠和技术人员无法谋生,他们将放弃生计,手工制作产品的技能将消失。市场上的定制产品将会减少。

词伙: hand-made products, mass-produced products, production cost, earn a living, give up livelihoods, make products by hand, custom-made products 翻译: Mechanisation will threaten traditional hand-made products as well as the skills involved in making these products. Compared with mass-produced products, many traditional handicrafts may take a longer time and cost more for production, so the production cost may be higher and the profit may be smaller. As for consumers, they may prefer to buy the products made by machines, which are normally available at a lower cost. As craftsmen and technicians fail to earn a living, they will give up their livelihoods and the skills of making products by hand will die out. There will be less custom-made products available in the market.


16 科技类:太空科技

(1) 科技 A. 投资太空科技 B. 促进科研水平的提升,促进科学进步 C. 有助于探索以后出现的科学难题和将这方面的研究运用到我们的生活 解释(A-B):像登月、空间探索和发送火星探测器等太空科技需要高水平的科技科学知识 举例:设计可以让宇航员在外太空安全工作的航天器 解释(C的结果):科学发明创造也可以用于商业用途 举例:用来制造在外星球恶劣条件下使用的探测器的材料,现在已经运用于地球上一些精密机器的制作

词伙: moon landing 登月 space exploration 空间探索 send rover to Mars 发送火星探测器 in the outer space 在外太空 in harsh conditions 在恶劣的条件下 sophisticated machines 精密机器 翻译: Investing in space missions help to promote scientific progress. Space missions such as moon landing, space exploration and sending rover to Mars require a high level of technological and scientific knowledge, such as the design of spacecrafts that allow astronauts to work safely in the outer space. The discoveries and inventions of scientists can be used commercially. For example, the material used in making probes which can function in harsh conditions on another planet is now applied for the production of sophisticated machines on earth.

(2) 经济 A. 投资太空科技 B 提供相关就业机会 C 对经济有帮助 解释(A-B):有许多技术人员和工程师的工作就是支援太空项目 举例:发射火箭和协助空间站工作。 解释(A-B):在将来,如果能够经常给富人游客提供太空旅游,就会有许多相关工作需要招募工作人员。

词伙: space tourism, space tour 太空旅游 a wide range of tasks 一系列任务 launch a rocket 发射火箭 provide assistance to space stations 协助空间站工作 翻译: The investment in space missions can also create employment, especially when space tourism has the potential to evolve into an industry. There are many technicians and engineers working to support a wide range of tasks related to space projects, such as launching a rocket and providing assistance to space stations. In the future, if space tours are organised regularly for rich tourists, more people should be recruited to fill relevant positions.

(3) 文化 A 投资太空项目 B 找到宜居星球 C 让我们的文明持续下去 背景:我们的地球在未来的某一时刻可能会因为核战争和小行星撞击而毁灭。 解释(A-B):为世界末日做准备是明智的,那么寻找地球的替代品就是第一步。 举例:比如,有一些国家在评估移居去火星的可能性,他们相信在那里可以找到水源来维持人类生存。 解释(B-C):艺术品,文物,庄稼还有动物都可以送去这个新星球,以保证可以把它们留给后人。

词伙: find a habitable planet 找到一个宜居星球 sustain our civilisation 延续我们的文明 at some point 在某一时刻 nuclear wars 核战争 an asteroid crash 小行星撞击 翻译: The spending on space science is also justified by the fact that it is part of our effort to find a habitable planet to sustain our civilisation. There are concerns that our planet can be destroyed at some point in the future, possibly by nuclear wars and an asteroid crash. It is advisable to prepare for the doomsday, and searching for an alternative to the earth is the first step. For instance, some countries are evaluating the possiblity of migrating to Mars, where they believe they can find water to support human habitation. Artworks, culturally significant objects, crops and animals can also be sent to the new home planet to ensure they can be preserved for future generations.

(4) 生活质量 A. 投资太空科技B 影响人们生活质量 C 很难得到民众的支持 背景:人们不理解投资太空科技的意义,比如说发送月球探测器。这样的项目需要花很多年才能达到其目的。 解释(A-B):在太空科技上耗资过多会造成其他方面的预算缩减,比如教育和医疗。 解释(B-C):这会影响人们的生活质量。

词伙: finance space programmes 资助太空项目 land a probe on moon 发送月球探测器 achieve its purpose 达到目的 the standard of living 生活质量 翻译: Sometimes it is difficult to garner support from the public when the government intends to finance space programmes. People do not understand the implications of the investment in space missions, such as landing a probe on moon. It can take many years for a programme to achieve its purpose. Investing too much money in space missions will cause a drop in money available for other areas such as education and medical services. It can also affect the standard of living.


17 科技类:资助科学研究和科技的影响

(1) 促进经济 A国家投资科学 B 创新,新产品的开发,提高产品生产率,质量 C 促进经济的发展 (A-B)技术创新可以支持新产品的开发。技术创新可以提高生产效率和产品质量。 (B-C)这些最先进的技术可以为公司和国家创造收入。并且开发这些技术的企业在国际市场上具有较强的竞争优势,为国家带来经济效益。

词伙: boost the country’s economic development 促进国家经济的发展 technological innovations 科技创新 state-of-the-art technologies 最先进的技术 create revenue 创造收入 favorable competitive advantages 有利的竞争优势 international markets 国际市场 economic benefits 经济利益 翻译: Government investment in science and technology can help to boost the country’s economic development. Scientific research lays the foundation for technological innovations, which can support the development of new products, such as medicine, machines and gadgets. All these state-of-the-art technologies can create revenue for companies and a country. Meanwhile, technological innovations can improve productivity and the quality of products of manufacturers, as machines are invented and systems are optimised. Companies which develop these technologies have favorable competitive advantages over competitors in the international markets, yielding economic benefits for the country.

(2) 提高人民生活水平 解释 A 政府对科学投资 B 解决一些问题 C 改善人们生活水平 (A-B)技术可以利用这些知识来处理一些问题,医学研究和突破,找到新的能源来源,发展食品科学和技术。 (B-C) 提供更有效的药物和医疗设备,甚至延长人们的寿命。保护环境,使地球更宜居。提供更广泛的食品选择,并通过增加粮食产量来解决饥荒。

词伙: persistent problems 持续的问题 medical research 医学研究 healthy lifestyle 健康的生活方式 effective drugs 有效的药物 medical equipment 医疗设备 life span 寿命 fatal diseases 致命疾病 effective chemotherapy for cancer 癌症的有效化疗 green technology 环保科技 new sources of energy 新能源 fossil fuel consumptions 化石燃料的消耗 a wider range of food options 食品种类的选择 improve their quality of life 改善他们的生活质量 tackle famine 解决饥荒问题 increase food yields 增加粮食产量 翻译: Government spending on science and technology is also justified by the fact that technology helps to improve people’s living standards. Scientific research can advance our knowledge of the physical world, while technology can tap into such knowledge to deal with some persistent problems which have affected us for decades or centuries. Another example is medical research as well as breakthroughs, which will increase people’s knowledge of nutrition and healthy lifestyle, provide them with more effective drugs and medical equipment, and even extend people’s life span with vaccines to prevent fatal diseases and more effective chemotherapy for cancer. In addition, government investment in green technology can help people find new sources of energy and cut down on fossil fuel consumption, thus protecting the environment and making the earth more livable. Last but not the least, investments in food science and technology can offer people a wider range of food options to improve their quality of life, and tackle famine by increasing food yields.

(3) 提高技能 A 教理科 B 提高技能 C 对国家有帮助 解释(A -B ): 需要想办法去支持、质疑或者证明一个理论或者假设。 解释(A-B):动手能力,包括建立数据模型,收集信息的能力 解释(B -C ): 每个人遇到问题的时候,通过这些技能去寻找解决的办法

词伙: scientifically literate 科学文化 develop logical and critical thinking 培养逻辑思维和批判性思维 carry out experiments 进行试验 practical skills 实践经验 build models 制造模型 gather information 收集信息 scientific questions 科学问题 scientific career 科学的职业生涯 solutions to problems 解决问题的办法 翻译: The investment in science teaching can also benefit the country in the sense that more students will become scientifically literate and develop logical and critical thinking. Whenever they have a theory or hypothesis, they will try to carry out experiments or tests to prove or disprove it. Young people who engage in scientific activity from a young age have practical skills such as building models and gathering information to answer scientific questions. Whether or not they will work in the scientific career, they can apply such skills to searching for solutions to problems. A country can benefit from having workers equipped with such skills and thinking.

(4) 生活水平 解释 A 政府过多的投资科学 B 不能够马上解决一些问题 C 对人们的生活造成负面的影响 背景:大多数人的生活水平仍处于贫困线以下 (A-B):投资很多钱,不能马上见到效果。当公众需要立即支助其生存需要时,科学方案并没有产生迅速的回报。 举例:如外层空间的探索,而不是解决温饱等基本需求

词伙: driving force 驱动力 have a negative impact on 有负面的影响 live below the poverty line 生活在贫困线以下 outer space exploration 外太空探索 basic needs 基本需求 survival needs 生存需求 翻译: Although the government’s investment in science and technology is the driving force of the country’s progress, too much investment in science and technology will also have a negative impact on people’s lives. In some countries, many people still live below the poverty line. If a large amount of money is invested in science and technology, such as outer space exploration, rather than addressing the basic needs like food and clothing, this will impact negatively on the life of the people in these countries. It is true that scientific programmes do not yield fast returns while the public are in need of immediate support for their survival needs.

(5) 法律 A 科学研究 B 不合法或者不符合道德规范 C 对社会产生不好影响 (B-C)有些私营企业或科学家有经济上的动机去进行一些违反法律或道德原则的试验。 举例:克隆和基因工程领域的一些实验就属于这一类,因为它有可能改变动物和人类的基因库。 (B-C) 某些大规模杀伤性武器被发明并落入不法之手,一些武器项目也会对人类构成威胁。

词伙: scientific projects 科学项目 illegal or unethical projects 非法或不道德项目 private businesses 私企 financial incentive 经济动机 launch some tests or experiments 进行实验 law or moral principles 法律或道德原则 genetic engineering 基因工程 gene pool 基因库 翻译: It is not easy to put all scientific projects under scrutiny and some illegal or unethical projects can have a negative effect on society. There are some private businesses or scientists who have the financial incentive to launch some tests or experiments against the law or moral principles. Some experiments in the field of cloning and genetic engineering fall into this category, as it risk changing the gene pool of animals and human beings. Some projects on weaponry are also a threat to humanity, if some weapons of mass destruction are invented and fall into wrong hands.

(1) 经济原因: A 越来越多人有钱了 B 他们会买车,然后去哪里都用车 C 交通尤其堵塞 解释(A-B):城市的人现在薪水很高,所以能够买得起车 解释(A-B):开车是一种主要的交通方式 解释(B-C):当人们开车去市中心时,交通堵塞在高峰时段会特别严重

词伙: traffic congestion, traffic jams 交通堵塞 car ownership 汽车拥有率 the main means of travel 主要的交通方式 peak hours 高峰时段 翻译: The main reason for traffic congestion is that car ownership has increased significantly. People now earn higher salaries in the city, so they are able to afford a car. Driving cars has become the main means of travel. Traffic jams are especially serious during peak hours, when people drive to the city centre.

(2) 生活效率: A城市变大 B 人们住在离市中心比较远的地方,要上班 C 导致交通堵塞 解释(A-B):他们选择住在郊区,因为房租会更便宜。通勤就会成为一个问题,因为他们每天必须开车去上班 解释(A-B):有一些城市只有几条去市中心的主要道路

词伙: live in outer suburbs 住在郊区 drive to work 开车去上班 everyday occurance 每天发生的事情 翻译: Another reason is that cities are expanding and people have to live in outer suburbs. They choose to live in the suburbs as housing is more affordable. Commuting is, however, a problem since they have to drive to work every day. In cities which only have several main roads leading to the city centre, traffic congestion is an everyday occurance.

(3) 基础设施: A 城市的设施不够好 B 大家觉得不适合其他交通工具 C 开车 解释(A-B):城市道路太过狭窄而且没有自行车道,所以人们觉得骑自行车去上班不安全 解释(A-B):交通枢纽也没有发展得很好,这意味着人们坐火车或公交车去上班都不容易 解释(B-C):路上的车子越多,人们每天堵在路上就很平常

词伙: poorly-designed transport facilities 设计拙劣的交通设施 rely on 依赖于 cycle to work 骑自行车去上班 transportation links 交通枢纽 get stuck in 堵塞 翻译: Poorly-designed transport facilities are possibly another reason why people today rely on driving. City roads are too narrow and there are no lanes for cycling, so people do not feel safe to cycle to work. Meanwhile, transportation links are not well-developed, meaning that it is not easy for people to get to work by train or bus. As there are more cars on the road, it is not unusual for people to get stuck in a traffic jam every day.

(1) 经济发展 A 交通堵塞 B 浪费人们的时间 C 对经济有影响 解释(B-C):通勤的人上班会迟到,这会降低他们的效率 解释(B-C):如果路堵塞了,货车这一类的交通工具,就很难把货物送到城市的每个地方,这也会影响公司的销售

词伙: traffic problems 交通问题 damage the economy 损害经济 be late for work 上班迟到 undermine their productivity 降低效率 other vehicles 其他交通工具 deliver goods 送货 affect the sales of companies 影响公司的销售 翻译: Traffic problems can damage the economy, if not solved. Commuters will be late for work and this can undermine their productivity. Meanwhile, if roads are congested, it is difficult for vans and other vehicles to deliver goods to different parts of the city, which can affect the sales of companies.

(2) 法律 A 交通堵塞 B 人们心情不好 C 交通事故增加 解释(A-B):堵在路上的人很容易发脾气 解释(B-C):他们可能会闯红灯,超速 解释(B-C):路怒会激增,因为人们无法准时赴约,和到达某个地方

词伙: affect people’s mood 影响人们心情 lose temper 发脾气 drive through red lights 闯红灯 exceed the speed limit 超速 road rage 公路暴力 翻译: It will affect people’s mood and traffic accidents will increase as well. People who get stuck in a traffic jam can lose temper easily. They may drive through red lights and exceed the speed limit. Road rage will also surge as people are unable to keep their appointments and get to some place on time.

18 城市类:舒缓交通压力

(1) 设施 A. 建立方便的公交系统 B. 鼓励大家多乘坐交通工具 C. 减少开车 背景:如果人们能够依靠地铁和公交车出行方便,他们就不太可能去开车 解释(A-B):住在不同社区的人们可以很方便地搭乘公共交通,公交车或者火车可以带他们去城市的每个地方 解释(A-B):如果公共交通能够准时,可靠,实惠,会有更多的人愿意采用这些交通方式

词伙: public transportation services 公共交通服务 get around easily 轻松出行 taking the metro or bus 搭地铁或公交车 have access to 可以利用 modes of transport 交通方式 翻译: The improvement of public transportation services can be a solution to traffic congestion. If people can get around easily by taking the metro or bus, they are less likely to travel by car. People living in different communities can have access to public transport, and buses or trains can take them to different parts of the city. If services are punctual, reliable and affordable, more people would turn to these modes of transport.

(2) 设施 A. 道路修宽,容纳更多车 C. 不容易堵车 解释(A-B):拓宽道路可以一次容纳更多的车,所以交通堵塞也不大可能会发生 解释(A-B):可以修建环形路,快车道还有其他的道路,这样驾驶员就可以通过不同的路线去中心商业区

词伙: broaden roads 拓宽道路 traffic gridlock 交通堵塞 accommodate more vehicles 容纳更多车 at a time 一次 ring roads 环形路 motorways 快车道 taking different routes 开不同路线 翻译: Building and broadening roads can also solve the traffic gridlock. Broad roads can accommodate more vehicles at a time, so traffic congestion is less likely to happen. Ring roads, motorways and other roads can be built to allow motorists to go to the CBD by taking different routes.

(3) A 增加费用 B 开车比较贵 C 大家不开车 解释(A-B):燃油税增加,驾驶员就必须每个月花更多钱在汽油上 解释(A-B):一些城市还征收堵塞费,所以司机进城的时候必须支付额外费用

词伙: fuel tax 燃油税 impose congestion charges 征收堵塞费 pay extra fees 支付额外费用 enter the urban centre 进入市中心 deter people from driving 阻止人们开车 翻译: Another possibly solution is to make driving expensive. The fuel tax can be increased so motorists have to pay more for fuel costs every month. Meanwhile, some cities may also impose congestion charges, so drivers have to pay extra fees when they enter the urban centre. These methods can deter people from driving.


19 城市类:房屋问题

(1) 文化 A 保护老房子 B 保护文化 C 人们可以了解建筑的历史和成就 背景:保护老建筑有助于保护国家的遗产,保护一个国家的历史。这些建筑可能是一个国家建筑风格的例子,展示了在这种宏伟的建筑是如何定义的。 解释(A-B)现代世界的人们可以看到特定地区建筑传统的独特特征,例如柱子的设计、建筑材料的选择和装饰的艺术。 解释(A-B)此外,建筑可以让人们了解建筑如何支持人们的生活方式、社会活动和社区生活。解释(C的结果):如果旧建筑被拆除,年轻一代将没有机会在未来欣赏他们祖先的建筑成就。

词伙: The protection of old buildings 保护老建筑 protect the country’s heritage保护国家的遗产 preserve a country’s history保护一个国家的历史 visually spectacular building 视觉宏伟的建筑 architectual traditions 建筑传统 appreciate architectural achievements 欣赏建筑成就 翻译: The protection of old buildings can help protect the country’s heritage and preserve a country’s history. These buildings may be examples of the architectural style of a country, showing how a visually spectacular building is defined in this culture. People in the modern world can see the unique features of architectural traditions of a specific area, such as the design of columns and pillars, the selection of building material and the art of decorations. Additionally, buildings can give an insight into how architecture supported lifestyles, social activities and community life of people living in the past. If old structures are demolished, younger generations would not have the opportunity to appreciate architectural achievements of their ancestors in the future.

(2) 经济 A 保护老房子 B 有地标建筑 C 提高收入 解释(A-B)这些建筑给城市增添了特色,游客们喜欢在这些标志性建筑前拍照。 举例:他们可以很容易地通过像埃及埃亚拉米兹金字塔这样的建筑奇观来识别城市或国家。 解释(A-C)旅游业的收入不仅为当地人提供了就业机会,而且还确保了政府为这些历史景点的维修和维护提供资金,这可能非常昂贵。

词伙: The conservation of old buildings保护古老建筑 give character to a city给城市增添特色 love taking photos喜欢拍照 identify cities or countries by architectural wonders 通过建筑奇观辨认出城市或者国家 the revenue of the travel industry 旅游业的收入 repair and maintenance of these historical attractions 维修和维护历史景点 翻译: The conservation of old buildings, especially landmarks of a city, is also justified by the fact that they are tourist attractions. These buildings give character to a city, and tourists love taking photos in front of these iconic buildings. They can easily identify cities or countries by architectural wonders like the pyramids in pyramids in Egypt. The revenue of the travel industry not only provides locals with jobs but also ensures the government has funding for the repair and maintenance of these historical attractions, which can be extremely expensive.

(3) 经济: A 保护老建筑 B 浪费钱 C 增加政府的费用 解释(A-B)一些结构可能是几十年甚至一个世纪前建造的,因此它们不符合安全标准,而且大部分可能由于不适合实际使用而被废弃。 举例:它们很可能在台风和暴风雪等极端天气条件下倒塌。 解释(B-C)翻修它们是昂贵的,或者不需要去翻修,因为它们在历史上或者文化上不认为是重要的。利用公共资金进行翻修毫无意义。

词伙: deserve preservation efforts 值得保护 a waste of public money浪费公共资金 run-down buildings要倒塌的房子 meet the safety standards符合安全标准 practical use 实际用处 in extreme weather conditions 在极端天气条件下 historically or cultural important历史上或者文化上很重要 makes little sense 几乎没有意义 翻译: However, some old buildings do not deserve preservation efforts and it is a waste of public money to conserve these run-down buildings. Some structures were possibly built decades or even one century ago, so they do not meet the safety standards and most of them are possibly deserted for not being suitable for practical use. They are likely to collapse in extreme weather conditions such as typhoon and snowstorm. It is costly to renovate them or unnecessary to do so as they are not considered to be historically or cultural important. It makes little sense to use public money for renovation efforts.

(4) 经济: A 保护老建筑 B 占用土地 C 影响城市发展 解释(A-B)如果房产是私有的,市政府很难重新开发这些地区。 解释(B-C)如果这些建筑没有被拆毁,城市中心就不能用现代化的摩天大楼来取代它们,用于住宅或商业用途。 解释(C的结果)没有商业综合体和高层公寓楼,城市就无法轻易吸引投资者、企业家和专业人士。它没有城市扩张所需的人力和资本。

词伙: occupy valuable land of inner city areas占领城市内部的宝贵土地 hinder the development of a city 阻碍了城市的发展 for residential or commercial use 住宅或者经济使用 urban expansion城市扩张 be privately owned私人所有 high-rise apartment blocks高层建筑 business complexes 商业综合体 翻译: Another problem of protecting old buildings is that these buildings can occupy valuable land of inner city areas and hinder the development of a city. It is difficult for the city council to redevelop these areas, if properties are privately owned. If these buildings are not torn down, the urban centre cannot replace them with modern skyscrapers for residential or commercial use. Without business complexes and high-rise apartment blocks, a city cannot attract investors, entrepreneurs and professionals easily. It does not have manpower and capital required for urban expansion.

(1) 生活水准 A 住房紧缺 B 房价过高 C 影响生活水准 解释(A-B)购房者必须支付更多的首付和抵押贷款,而居住在租房的人必须支付更高的租金 解释(B-C)与住房相关的成本会占用每月的预算,并降低人们可支配的收入,以应付诸如购买家庭用品等其他支出。他们可能生活在压力之下

词伙: leading to a higher housing price导致房价上涨 a drop in the standard of living生活水平下降 live in rental accommodation居住在租房 pay higher rent支付更高的租金 housing-related costs与住房相关的成本 monthly budget每月的预算 disposable income 可支配收入 handle other expenses处理其他费用 buy household goods购买家庭用品 翻译: The housing shortage can lead to a higher housing price but a drop in the standard of living. Homebuyers have to pay more for the down payment as well as the mortgage, while people who live in rental accommodation have to pay higher rent. The housing-related costs can bite into the monthly budget and reduce the disposable income available for people to handle other expenses, such as buying household goods. They may live under pressure.

(2) 健康 A 住房紧缺 B 会有健康问题 C 增加医疗的负担 解释(A-B)居住在卫生、通风和隔热条件差的建筑物中的人容易感染流感、呼吸道疾病和传染病 解释(A-B)生活在狭窄的环境中会导致高压力水平,因为人们面临着诸如缺乏隐私和暴露在噪音中的问题 解释(B-C)所有这些问题都会给医疗系统带来压力

词伙: The shortage of high-quality housing住房的短缺 the general public大众 a public health issue公共卫生问题 increase the medical cost增加医疗成本 have poor sanitation, ventilation and insulation 卫生,通风,隔音效果差 can be vulnerable to flus, respiratory diseases and infectious diseases 容易感染流感,呼吸道疾病和其他传染病 high stress levels 高血压 lack of privacy 缺乏隐私 exposure to noise 暴露于噪音之中 pose a strain on the medical system对医疗系统造成压力 翻译: The shortage of high-quality housing for the general public can be a public health issue and increase the medical cost. People living in buildings which have poor sanitation, ventilation and insulation can be vulnerable to flus, respiratory diseases and infectious diseases. Living in cramped conditions can lead to high stress levels as people face problems such as the lack of privacy and exposure to noise. All these problems can pose a strain on the medical system.

(3) 法律 A 住房紧缺 B 贫富差距加大 C 社会不稳定 解释(A-B)虽然低收入者必须用他们收入的很大一部分来支付抵押贷款或租金,但那些富裕家庭拥有多种财产,通过出租他们的一些房子来过上舒适的生活 解释(C的结果)经济上的分歧可能导致反社会行为和对上层阶级的犯罪增加 解释(C的结果)政府没能解决这个问题,人们会憎恨政府

词伙: housing supply crisis 住房供给危机 threaten social stability威胁社会稳定 increase the disparity between rich and poor增加贫富差距 use a large proportion of their earnings用收入的一大部分 pay the mortgage or rent支付抵押贷款或租金 well-off families富裕家庭 have multiple properties拥有多种财产 live comfortably过上舒适的生活 renting out some of their houses出租他们的一些房子 anti-social behaviour 导致反社会行为 the upper class上层阶级 feel resentful 感到愤慨 翻译: The housing supply crisis in the long term can threaten social stability as it can increase the disparity between rich and poor. While low income people have to use a large proportion of their earnings to pay the mortgage or rent, those well-off families have multiple properties and live comfortably by renting out some of their houses. The economic divide can lead to an increase in anti-social behaviour and the crime against the upper class. People feel resentful as the government fails to address the problem.

(1) 设施 A 增加土地供应 B 多建房子 C 解决住房危机 解释(A-B)这可以通过拆除市中心地区的一些废弃建筑来实现,因此房地产公司可以在那里建造一些住宅区。 解释(A-B)另一种方法是在城市边缘建立一些新的住房区,并建立交通系统,使人们能够轻松地从家到中心办公室。 解释(A-B)在大城市附近设计一些卫星城也是可能的,因此那些买不起第一套房子的人可以住在那里。

词伙: increase the land supply增加土地的供给 tear down some dilipidated buildings拆除一些破旧的建筑 real estate companies 房地产公司 build some housing blocks建造住宅小区 build transport links 建立运输连接 travel easily from home to the central office从家里到办公室很简单 翻译: One way to tackle the housing crisis is to increase the land supply to allow for more housing development projects. This can be achieved by tearing down some dilapidated buildings in inner city areas, so real estate companies can build some housing blocks there. Another method is to create some new housing areas on the edge of the city and build transport links allowing people to travel easily from home to the central office. It is also possible to design some satellite towns close to megacities, so people who have difficulty in affording the first home can live there.

(2) 生活标准 A 提高福利房 B 让穷人有房子住 C 解决住房危机 解释(A-B)政府可以利用房地产业的部分税收来建造住宅。 解释(B-C)有资格参加这项计划的家庭可以住在这种补贴住宿,而无需承担巨大的费用。

词伙: earn sufficient income赚足够的钱 get on the property ladder买房 tax revenue税收 housing industry 房地产业 construct residential buildings建造住宅建筑 subsidised accommodation 补贴住宅 bear a huge cost 负担大笔钱 翻译: State housing is also a solution especially for people who fail to earn sufficient income to get on the property ladder. The government can use part of tax revenue from the housing industry to construct residential buildings. Families eligible to join this programme can live in this kind of subsidised accommodation without bearing a huge cost.

(3) 法律 A 颁布法律 B 避免市场不当的投机行为 C解决住房危机 解释(A-B):法律可以限制一个家庭拥有的房屋的数量,防止富裕家庭购买大量房产。 解释(B-C):如果超出限制,还可以对家庭拥有的额外房产征税。部分富裕家庭的资金可用于资助公屋,这个公屋向穷人提供。

词伙: pass some laws颁布法律 curb speculative investment 限制投机投资 housing industry房屋产业 purchasing a large number of properties 购买大量的物业 well-off families富裕的家人 impose property taxes征收财产的税 finance council housing 资助廉租房 翻译: The government can pass some laws to curb speculative investment in the housing industry. Laws can set a limit on the number of houses owned by a family and prevent wealthy households purchasing a large number of properties. Property taxes can also be imposed on extra properties possessed by families, if the limit is exceeded. Part of the money from those well-off families can be used to finance council housing, which can be provided by the disadvantaged.

(1) 住房子空间大,有后院等,可以有更多的活动,譬如说园艺和举行PARTY,而单元比较拥挤,居住条件不是很好

词伙: spacious, living conditions 翻译: Houses are normally more spacious. With backyards, owners can throw parties and plant their gardens. In contrast, flats are normally crowded and people have to accept cramped living conditions.

(2) 房子一般不在市中心,比较安静,而单元楼在市中心,比较吵

词伙: quiet subsurbs, city centre 翻译: Houses are normally in quiet suburbs, while apartment buildings are normally in the city centre, where noise is consistently a problem.

(3) 房子贵,装修,按揭等,单元比较便宜,适合单身人士

词伙: furnish, mortgage, young professionals/one-person households 翻译: The ownership of a house is expensive as owners have to furnish the home and pay mortgage. By comparison, living in flats is cost-effective and suitable for one-person households.

(4) 单元一般在市中心,离各种设施都比较近,上班也方便

词伙: in the urban centre, access to amenities, travel to and from work 翻译: Blocks of flat are normally in the central area, and the access to amenities is an advantage. People can travel to and from work more easily.


20 城市类:城市化

城市与农村区别:

(1) 效率:A 生活在城市B 交通拥挤 C 生活很不方便 解释:收入更高,需要开车 解释:城市比较大,去不同的地方比较麻烦,需要开车

词伙: living in the city, life in city, gain higher salaries, afford car ownership, car-dependent 翻译: One drawback of living in the city is that urban life is not as convenient as they think and traffic congestion is a severe problem. People usually gain higher salaries in the city, so they are able to afford car ownership. Another reason why cities are car-dependent is that it may be troublesome for city dwellers to get around, as the city is extremely big. As more vehicles are on the road, it is not unusual for people to get stuck in traffic, especially during rush hour.

(2) 健康:A生活在城市B竞争激烈C生活压力大 A-B:城市中人口大,一些工作岗位的竞争人数较多 B-C:为了升职加薪要付出更多的努力:加班出差培训,不断学习新技能 解释(C的坏处):容易生病

词伙: fierce competition, make more efforts, get a pay rise, gain a promotion, work overtime, fall ill 翻译: Life in cities can be extremely stressful due to the fierce competition in city. Cities are normally heavily populated, and there are many people competing for a single position. In order to get a pay rise or gain a promotion in the workplace, they have to work overtime, travel for business or train to gain new skills. Due to a relatively stressful lifestyle, they are very likely to fall ill.

(3) 生活质量:A生活在城市B人们的生活成本很高C人们活的并不开心 解释:人口多,需求上升 解释(B-C):买不起房,没有安全感,收入cover不了房租 解释(B-C):生活费用提高,很多东西买不起

词伙: have a sense of happiness, a huge demand for, have a sense of security, cover the rising rent, living expenses 翻译: People who live in cities may not have a sense of happiness since the cost of living is high. Population density means a huge demand for goods and services, which are increasingly expensive. Inhabitants of cities do not have a sense of security when they cannot buy their own home, as their income may not be able to cover the rising rent. Other living expenses also increase constantly, and the consequence is that they are not able to afford what they need in their lives, such as some electronic devices.

(4) 社交:A生活在城市B 人和人生疏 C 比较孤独 解释1:城市人口流动很大,大家知道很难交很久的朋友,所以不愿意深交 解释2:城市很拥挤,大家很少参加户外活动和社区活动,没有社区感 解释3:生活节奏快,大家追求物质的成功,难免忽视了朋友和家人

词伙: a sense of loneliness, urban population, lifelong friends, a strong relationship, do community activities, a sense of community, feel disconnected, material success 翻译: People living in cities are also likely to experience a sense of loneliness as they are not as close as those in countryside. The urban population is mobile and people know it is hard to make lifelong friends, so they are unwilling to initiate a strong relationship. Another reason is that cities are overcrowded and people hardly do outdoor or community activities. They do not have a sense of community, and some of them feel disconnected from other members of community. Finally, people live a busy life in the pursuit of material success and sacrifice their family life or social life.

(5) 环境:A生活在城市B污染严重C更容易生病 A-B :交通废气排放造成的空气污染 A-B :工厂废水废气排放, 会造成城市的污染 A -B : 垃圾很多,处理垃圾不当,污染泥土和水源 B-C:长期生活在这种条件下,疾病概率增加

词伙: severe pollution, waste water, discharge fumes, car air pollution, water contamination, create waste, dispose of waste 翻译: Citizens are more susceptible to illness because of the severe pollution in the city. Emissions from transportation can cause air pollution, and the waste water and fumes discharged by factories can exacerbate the pollution of the urban environment. The soil and water contamination are also serious environmental problems as waste is created in huge amounts every day and most of it is not disposed of in environmentally responsible ways. Living in these conditions can increase the risk of contracting different diseases.

(6) 经济发展 A 住在城市 B 就业机会多 C 生活更富裕 解释:人口密集,很多商业可以提供服务,赚钱 解释:劳动力更加充足,更加容易吸引投资

词伙: the economic prosperity, guarantees job opportunities 翻译: People can earn a relatively high income in cities as the economic prosperity guarantees job opportunities. Cities are normally densely populated, and numerous companies can make profits by providing services and products. A larger talent pool can attract investment, which is also a driver of economic growth. As cities are prosperous, people can earn more than they do in rural areas.

(7) 个人发展:a b工作机会多 c更容易成功 a-b 有更多的大企业在城市 b-c 人们可以拓展社交圈 更多资源人脉可以帮助自己

词伙: get more job opportunities, expand their social circle, make more friends, get better job opportunities 翻译: The advantage of moving to cities is that people can become successful easily since they can get more job opportunities. There are more big companies in the cities providing thousands of jobs in different industries for job applicants. Some of these jobs, such as those in information technology, may not be available in rural areas, where farming is normally the main sector of economy. Moreover, people living in cities can expand their social circle to make more friends, who can help them to get better job opportunities.

(8) 生活质量:A生活在城市B基础设施完善C生活质量更高 背景:城市经济发达,政府有资金投入到交通医疗教育中 解释1:交通方便,想去的地方,每天产出更高 解释2:学习资源丰富,以后事业更好,赚钱 解释3:医疗,治病,寿命延长 解释4:文娱生活丰富

词伙: enjoy the access to a great variety of facilities, gain a decent quality of life, develop and upgrade different services, highly efficient transport, vocational learning centres, earn a higher income and have a fulfilling career. 翻译: One benefit of living in cities is that people can enjoy the access to a great variety of facilities and gain a decent quality of life. The urban economy continues to expand and provide the government with sufficient money to develop and upgrade different services. For example, a highly efficient transport link can enhance the productivity of many people as they can get around easily. The availability of public schools, vocational learning centres and universities allows them to gain knowledge to earn a higher income and have a fulfilling career. Hospitals and other medical facilities help them recover from different medical conditions and live a healthy life. Finally, facilities such as pubs, libraries, gardens, art galleries and theme parks can ensure that people find enjoyment in diverse recreational activities.

解决方法:

(1) 发展乡村经济,减少贫富差距,提高当地的生活水平

词伙: rural economy, close the gap between rich and poor, improve the standard of living 翻译: It’s important to revive the rural economy and close the gap between rich and poor by reducing regional discrepancies. If people in small towns or rural areas improve the standard of living, they would not have the incentive to migrate to big cities.

(2) 城市扩大,增加基础设施

词伙: cities develop, increase the expenditure on infrastructure 翻译: Cities can develop to meet the needs of a growing population and increase the expenditure on infrastructure.


21 城市类:绿化和公园

公园和种树的好坏处:

(1) 环境:对环境好。解释(1) 花草可以吸收二氧化碳,释放氧气,有利于净化环境。(2) 树木可以提升城市的排水,树木可以保护土壤,有防洪的功能。

词伙: absorb pollutants, provide oxygen, reduce air pollution, improve air quality, improve drainage, hold soil 翻译: The advantage of having parks and planting more trees is that they are a valuable asset to the environment. Plants and trees can absorb pollutants and provide oxygen, which can reduce air pollution and improve air quality. Additionally, trees and plants can improve drainage of a city and play an important role in fighting floods as they hold soil.

(2) 休闲娱乐: 是个锻炼的好地方。解释:一些人会选择在公园和环境好的地方来运动,呼吸空气,接触一下绿植,这样对人们的健康有好处,不然的话,人们可能会久坐不动,非常不利于他们的健康。

词伙: do exercise, physical activities, fresh air, get close to nature, adopt a healthy lifestyle 翻译: Parks and places with more trees provide people good places to do exercise, which is beneficial for people’s health. People will choose parks for physical activities, such as jogging, taking a walk, because these places usually have a good environment. People can enjoy fresh air there and get close to nature. This can encourage them to adopt a healthy lifestyle. Otherwise, city dwellers probably will lead a sendatary lifestyle, just sitting in front of computers to play computer games after school or work.

(3) 社会生活:是很多社区活动的场所。背景:城市高楼越来越多,共享的空间越来越少了。解释:公园可以提供树荫,很多人喜欢开花的植物,人们愿意聚在一起。解释2:开阔地可以举办一些社区活动,譬如说跳蚤市场、室外音乐会、艺术展览等等,更有社区的气息。

词伙: communal space, provide shade, flowering plants, flea markets, a sense of community 翻译: Parks can be a hub of community activity. Communal space has dwindled as cities have more and more skyscrapers. Trees can provide shade for people in summer and many visitors also enjoy visiting parks with flowering plants. Open spaces are ideal locations for flea markets, outdoor concerts and art exhibitions, which can draw people and create a sense of community.

(4) 钱:太多公园未必有助于城市的发展。解释:城市没有空间去建大楼,去拓宽道路等等。如果一个城市设施支持不同行业的发展,很难富裕。

词伙: green spaces, occupy the space, business blocks, broad roads, achieve prosperity 翻译: Green spaces are sometimes regarded as an obstacle to the development of a city. Parks may occupy the space which can otherwise be used for high-rise business blocks or broader roads. Without the infrastructure necessary for industrial development, a city is not very likely to achieve prosperity.

种植物的好处

(1) 种花是一种健康的hobby,对比现代的一些娱乐方式,譬如说上网

词伙: a healthy hobby, modern entertainment 翻译: Growing flowers is a healthy hobby, compared with modern entertainment, such as surfing the web.

(2) 照顾植物给自己成就感,也有责任感

词伙: tend plants, a sense of responsibility 翻译: Tending plants can foster a sense of responsibility. Having a beautiful home garden can give keen gardeners a sense of fulfillment.

(3) 有些植物可以结果,给家里提供有机食品

词伙: bear fruit, organic food 翻译: Some plants can bear fruit and provide organic food

(4) 花的香味和颜色让我们心情更好

词伙: lighten our mood 翻译: Waking up to the smell of flowers can lighten our mood in the morning.

(5) 花可以点缀家里,还有环境,更加赏心悦目

词伙: serve as decorations 翻译: Flowers can serve as decorations and improve living conditions.

(6) 花代表爱情,友谊等,是人们表达情感的方式

词伙: a symbol of love, express feelings 翻译: Flowers are used to express feelings and affection. Some flowers symbolize love or commitment.

(7) 花有文化的意义,有时候代表传统的一些美德,有教育意义

词伙: cultural connotations 翻译: Flowers also have cultural connotations and have links to some traditional virtues.

坏处:

(1) 比较花钱,喜欢买肥料、工具等

词伙: require investment 翻译: Growing plants requires investment as people need to spend money on fertilisers and tools.

(2) 挫败感,如果花死了,或者植物长不大

词伙: feel frustrated, flowers wither 翻译: People may feel frustrated if flowers wither or plants do not mature appropriately.


22 生活价值观:自私和物质 VS 无私和社会责任

(1) 生活标准 A. 专注自己的学习和工作 B. 实现自己的潜能 C 提高生活标准 解释(A-B)由于他们是出于自身利益的驱使,他们可能会拒绝其他人寻求帮助的任何请求。这可以阻止分心,确保他们能够专注于优先事项和目标 举例:例如,他们可能试图尽快完成自己的工作,而不是帮助陷入问题的同事 解释(B-C):在这方面,自私实际上可以提高他们的生产力,帮助他们获得更多成就

词伙: reach full potential 充分发挥潜力 improve the standard of living提高生活水平 block distractions干扰 focus on priorities and objectives注重优先 的事业和目标 boost their productivity提高生产力 翻译: Being selfish may sometimes help people reach full potential and improve the standard of living as they focus on their own objectives. As they are driven self-interest, they may turn down any request of other people for help. This can block distractions and ensure that they can stay focused on priorities and objectives. For example, they may try to complete their own work as soon as possible, rather than give a helping hand to colleagues who are stuck in a problem. In this regard, selfishness can actually boost their productivity and help them achieve more.

(2) A.自私 B.有野心和想要成功 C. 会成功 解释(A-B)他们不愿意与他人分享荣耀,而是希望自己成为杰出的人,最后独享自己成就的所得 解释(A-B)以自我为中心的人不想欠任何人一个人情,因为这样他们不会还别人的人情 解释(B-C)如果他们的工作有任何问题,他们不会求助于他人,而是选择自己去克服。因此,他们往往是多才多艺,能够做很多事情

词伙: have the determination to succeed有成功的决心 drive their personal ambitions and success驱动他们的个人抱负和成功 share glory with others与他人分享荣耀 self-centred people以自我中心的人 翻译: Selfish people have the determination to succeed as they are driven my their personal ambitions and success. Instead of sharing glory with others, they desire to be outstanding and solely entitled to all the gains of accomplishing a feat. Self-centred people do not want to owe anybody a favour as it can free themselves of the obligation to return any favour. If there is any problem with their work, they would not turn to others for help but choose to overcome it themselves. Because of this, they tend to be versatile and capable of doing many things.

(3) 社会发展 A. 自私 B 人们有好的idea C.这些好的idea推动社会的进步 解释(A-B)他们倾向于捍卫自己的观点,坚持自己选择做的任何事情,即使这可能与一些传统和其他人的观点相冲突 解释(A-B)由于他们对他人的感受或反对不太敏感,他们有时会不择手段地把自己的想法付诸实践 解释 (B-C):他们不寻常的想法可能变成创新,会对世界产生积极的影响

词伙: show their own opinions and ideas 分享他们的观点和想法 promote social progress促进进步 defend their views 为他们的观点辩护 in conflict with与..发生冲突 be less sensitive to不那么敏感 put their ideas in to practice把想法付出实践 make a positive difference to the world给世界带来积极的变化 翻译: Selfishness also means that people are willing to show their own opinions and ideas, which can sometimes promote social progress. They tend to defend their views and persist with whatever they choose to do, even though it may be in conflict with some traditions and the opinions of others. As they are less sensitive to the feelings or objection of others, they sometimes strive against all odds to put their ideas into practice. Their unusual ideas may sometimes turn out be innovations which can make a positive difference to the world.

(4) 技术 A.商业如果自私 B.不与其他公司或者人分享东西 C.更有竞争力 解释(A-B)首先,公司不太可能与竞争对手分享其专有技术、知识产权和商业秘密。这些资源让企业比竞争对手厉害,这就是消费者愿意为其产品或服务付费的原因 解释 (A-B) 一家公司可能会选择保留大部分(如果不是全部)利润,因为它需要资金来支持研究和发展,奖励勤奋的员工和增加销售。如果将利润用于慈善事业或其他目的,它将无法维持市场份额

词伙: in the business world在商业世界 share its know-how, intellectual properties and busniess secrets with its competitors跟对手分享知识产权和商业机密 maintain its market share保持市场份额 distinguish a business from its rivals区分企业与竞争对手 翻译: Being selfish is possibly a necessary evil in the business world, as it can make a company more competitive. First of all, a company is not very likely to share its know-how, intellectual properties and business secrets with its competitors. These kinds of resources distinguish a business from its rivals and that is why consumers are willing to pay for its products or services. Second, a company may choose to keep most, if not all, of its profit, as it needs capital to support research and development, reward hardworking staff and grow sales. It would not be able to maintain its market share if it used its profit for charities or other purposes.

(5) 收入 A.自私 B. 处理不好和别人的关系 C. 影响职业 解释(A-B)他们把注意力集中在自己的任务上,而不是支持他人,因此他们不受同事的欢迎。解释(B-C) 如果他们需要别人的建议和帮助,这可能会有问题 解释(A-B)如果他们下定决心独自解决所有问题,那将耗费时间和精力 解释(B-C)他们最终会意识到,一个团队和与其他人的合作可以帮助他们实现比他们单独工作时要收获得更多的

词伙: develop or maintain a good relationship with others提升或保持与别人的好的关系 hurt their careers伤害来他们的职业 focus their minds on their own tasks关注在他们自己的事情 need advice and assistance from others需要建议和来自他人的帮助 tackle all problems 解决所以的问题 consume time and energy消耗时间和能量 cooperate with others跟他人合作 work in isolation 孤立工作 翻译: Selfish people cannot develop or maintain a good relationship with others, and this can hurt their careers in the long term. They focus their minds on their own tasks, rather than support others, so they are not popular with colleagues. This can be problematic if they need advice and assistance from others. If they are determined to tackle all problems alone, it can consume time and energy. They will eventually realise that a team and cooperating with others can help them achieve far more than they do when working in isolation.

(6) 收入 A.公司只关注盈利 B.不关注社会责任 C对企业声誉有威胁 解释(A-B)一个利润驱动的公司可能操纵消费者使其收入最大化,而且它的一些做法是不道德的 举例:一些公司未能妥善保管客户的个人信息,其中一些公司甚至从销售此类数据中获利 举例2:此外,一些公司没有试图履行其对员工安全和社区环境保护的职责 一旦它的任何不好的做法被揭发,就很难树立它的声誉

词伙: a threat to the reputation of a business对企业的声誉是损害 social responsibility社会责任 manipulate consumers操纵消费者 maximise its revenue最大限度地增加收入 personal information个人信息 make no attempt to fulfil their duties 不试图履行他们的责任 fulfil their duties to safety of employees and to the environmental protection of communities 履行对雇员的安全和保护社区环境的义务 翻译: It is also a threat to the reputation of a business if it is concerned with its profitability, rather than social responsibility. A profit-driven company may manipulate consumers to maximise its revenue, and some of its practices are unethical. Some companies, for example, fail to look after personal information of their customers with due care, and some of them even profit from selling such data. Additionally, some companies make no attempt to fulfil their duties to safety of employees and to the environmental protection of communities. It would be difficult to build its reputation once any of its malpractices is exposed.

(7) 健康和快乐 A 自私的人B 得不到别人人口 C 生活满意度不高 解释(A-B):他们比较贪婪,不喜欢分享财富,没有很多朋友 解释(B-C):不能在社会生活中获得快乐 解释(A-B):不喜欢慈善工作,将钱用于慈善用途 解释(B-C):不能够从别人的赞美中获得成就感

词伙: 翻译: Selfish people may not experience the same level of satisfaction with their lives as those unselfish people. Self-centred people are greedy and unwilling to share their wealth and resources of others, so they do not have a large circle of friends. For this reason, they are unlikely to gain a sense of happiness by spending quality time with friends and celebrating some special moments together. Meanwhile, selfish people are not interested in charity work and donating money for worthy causes. They are not able to gain a sense of pride and achievement by receiving praises from other members of society who recognise their contribution.


23 生活价值观:社会规范和行为规则

体现礼貌的地方

(1) 打招呼,道歉和感谢,不打断别人说话,以及其他交流技能

词伙: greet, apologise, express gratitude, interrupt others, communication skills 翻译: People should learn how to greet others politely, apologise whenever necessary, and express gratitude. They should learn communication skills and avoid blunders, such as interrupting others when other people speak.

(2) 就餐礼仪, 包括如何敬酒,如何分菜等

词伙: table manners, make a toast, distribute dishes 翻译: People should be conscious of table manners, such as polite ways to make a toast and the conventions in distributing dishes.

(3) 社会规范(让座,公共场合不大声说话,不制造噪音,不随地吐痰和扔垃圾、排队、使用手机要注意不影响他人等)

词伙: give up your seat, make noise, drop litter, wait in line, disturb others 翻译: There are social norms in public places, such as giving up your seat to the elderly on public transport, trying not to make noise, wait in line and use electronic devices without disturbing others. Spitting and dropping litter are examples of impolite and anti-social behaviour.

(4) 专业礼仪

词伙: rules of etiquette 翻译: There are rules of etiquette people need to follow in different professions.

(5) 穿衣习惯, 正式场合穿着正式,学校要穿校服

词伙: dress code, dress formally, wear uniforms 翻译: People can show respect to a company, a ceremony or an event by following the dress code. They need to dress formally on some occasions. Students are expected to wear uniforms at school.

(6) 工作地点的礼貌(握手,交换名片,称呼,使用礼貌语言等

词伙: shake hands, exchange business cards, in polite ways 翻译: Being polite in work contexts includes shaking hands in meetings, exchanging business cards and communicating with others in polite ways.

(7) 送礼来表示谢意,或者是代表友谊

词伙: prepare gifts, a gesture of friendship 翻译: We prepare gifts to show gratitude or as a gesture of friendship.

为什么越来越不注重礼貌?

(1) 学校不注意道德教育,行为规范教育,只关注考试成绩,并且鼓励学生竞争,漠视学生的行为问题

词伙: moral principles, rules of behaviour, exam performance, behavioural problems 翻译: Schools hardly teach children moral principles and rules of behaviour. Teachers focus on exam performance, rather than behavioural problems.

(2) 科技发展,人们关注手机、电脑、越来越宅,缺乏社会活动,变得自私,很少和人交流,不懂的尊重别人

词伙: technological advances, less interested in social life, self-centred, interaction with others 翻译: Technological advances have made people anti-social. They are less interested in social life as screen time increases. Self-centred people ignore their interaction with others.

(3) 父母溺爱孩子,或者父母疏于管教,小孩只关注自己,而不去注意社会规范,别人的感受

词伙: spoil children, maintain strong discipline, social norms 翻译: Parents spoil children and hardly discipline misbehaved children. Selfish children do not pay attention to social norms and the feelings of others.

(4) 接触媒体暴力,不好行为,小孩模仿

词伙: televised violence, poor behaviour 翻译: Exposure to televised violence is a big problem. People tend to copy poor behaviour they see on TV.

(5) 贫穷,贫富差距,社会矛盾加剧,贫困人士没有受到很好的教育,比较多仇恨

词伙: income disparity, social division, disadvantaged people, resentment against 翻译: Poverty and income disparity have led to social division. Disadvantaged people have resentment against the upper class. They are hostile towards others, rather than friendly.

(6) 竞争激烈,大家不够耐心,希望尽快获得优势,说话不够礼貌

词伙: show patience, gain advantages, in polite ways 翻译: In a competitive world, people hardly show patience. They want to show their opinions and talents in order to gain advantages. They do not have patience to communicate in polite ways and follow social rules.

(7) 强调自我的表达,强调个性,生活更加自由,快乐

词伙: self-expression, show individuality, enjoy more freedom 翻译: People today pay attention to self-expression. They want to show individuality and enjoy more freedom, so the code of conduct is sometimes too complex and unnecessary to them.

为什么要重视社会规范:

(1) 社会:体贴和尊重别人,建立好的社会和工作关系

词伙: considerate of others, build a network of contacts 翻译: Polite people are considerate of others. This can help them build a network of contacts easily.

(2) 经济:体现你的教育层次和社会背景,给人好的印象,对职场发展有好处

词伙: educational level/academic background, social standing/economic-social status, make a good impression, career advancement 翻译: The ways people talk to others can show their educational level and social standing. Communicating in a friendly way can make a good impression on others and contribute to career advancement.

(3) 经济:行为更加规范,减少各种场合对别人的影响,大家要可以专注工作和学习

词伙: conform to social norms, reduce interference with…concentrate on work and studies 翻译: Everybody can concentrate on work and studies if they all conform to social norms and do not do anything that disturbs others.

(4) 健康:礼貌可以让人更好处理矛盾,解决问题,生活也更愉快

词伙: resolve/ settle conflicts, handle problems, live a happy life. 翻译: Polite people are more likely to live a happy life because they can resolve/ settle conflicts easily by engaging in polite conversations with others, and find common ground to handle problems.

为什么要我行我素:

(1) 科技:限制个性发展,人们有独特的想法不敢表现,不敢创新

词伙: hinder career advancement, express their ideas, inhibit innovation 翻译: People may not express their ideas clearly if they are afraid that their statements hurt others. This can hinder career advancement and inhibit innovation.

(2) 健康:表达自己的情绪,享受自由,对健康有帮助

词伙: express feelings, enjoy freedom 翻译: People who are less conscious of social rules are inclined to express feelings freely and enjoy freedom to live their lives as they please. This is beneficial to their health.

(3) 经济:遵守传统习惯有时候比较花钱和时间(譬如说,要互送礼物、要穿很正式的衣服、说话要比较含蓄等),影响效率

词伙: Preserve traditions, exchange gifts, wear formal dress, speak in a subtle way 翻译: Preserving traditions such as exchanging gifts, wearing formal dress and speaking in a subtle way can be costly and time-consuming. It can affect the efficiency we need in the modern world.

(4) 社会:某些传统习惯都是强调每个人的社会角色,不符合现代人追求平等的特点。

词伙: Social roles, value equality 翻译: Some traditions emphasise and reinforce the roles of people in society, and do not show the value of equality.

礼貌的坏处:

(1) 出于礼貌有时候你会闪烁其词,但是对方很难理解

词伙: hide feelings, express views openly 翻译: You may sometimes hide feelings and choose not to express your views openly, so people may find it difficult to understand your intention.


24 生活价值观:事业抑或家庭

(1) 生活标准。 A. 追求事业 B. 人们能够接受培训,获取工作信息。C. 他们能有高薪 解释(A-B):追求事业的人花更多的时间接受培训,获取最近的工作信息。 解释(B-C):如果他们能够做些同事不能做的事情,他们会获得更高的工资和好的生活品质。

词伙: pay more attention to 关注… up-to-date information 最新的消息 get higher salaries 获得高薪 have a decent quality of life 过着高质量的生活 翻译: Career-oriented people may gain more wealth. People who pay more attention to their careers will spend more time receiving training to gain up-to-date information about their jobs, and possibly in working to ensure they are good at doing their jobs. If they are capable of doing something their colleagues cannot achieve, they get higher salaries and have a decent quality of life.

(2) 个人成长: A.以事业为重 B. 提升自己的能力 C. 个人发展 解释(A-B):技能发展需要练习和重复 举例:时间管理,如何提高整理能力,提高科技能力,沟通能力 举例:敬业的人交流更加频繁,交流技能提高

词伙: 需要练习和重复 requires practice and repetition 时间管理 manage time 组织能力 organisational skills 提高电脑知识 computer literacy 数字科技能力 digital technology 敬业的人Dedicated workers 翻译: More attention on career rather than families enables people to spend more time on personal development. Skill development requires practice and repetition. They can manage time effectively, keep documents in order and improve other organisational skills as they are familiar with handling work. They can also acquire technical skills, such as computer literacy and using digital technology to complete work, if they attend relevant courses. Dedicated workers also communicate with their colleagues, supervisors and clients more frequently, their communication skills can be improved.

(3) 经济发展。 A 追求事业 B 将自己的想法付诸实际 C 社会有很多创新,经济发展 背景:追求事业的人有想法 解释(A-B):他们有更深的关于行业内,产业内的想法。 解释(B-C):他们能够突破产业的瓶颈,考虑这个行业可能的积极的变化

词伙: relaise their dreams 实现梦想 promote economic growth 促进经济进步 deepen their understanding 加深理解 spot the bottleneck 发现瓶颈 creative potential 创意潜能 翻译: People who are driven by their career ambitions will strive to realise their dreams, most of which are novel ideas that can promote economic growth. As they devote enormous amounts of time to their work, they deepen their understanding of their professions and the industries they work in. They can spot the bottlenecks of the industry and consider some potential changes which can make a positive difference to their fields of work. Their creative potential can be fulfilled and their ideas, if materialised, drive economic growth.

(4) 家庭关系 A.忽视了家人,孩子的成长,B.造成他们关系疏离。C.危害家庭成员之间的关系。 背景:他们很忙,没有时间陪伴孩子和其他家庭成员 解释(A-B):造成家庭的疏离感 解释(B-C):家庭成员关系不好,孩子表现差,老人有孤独感

词伙: busy schedule忙碌的行程 accompany 陪伴 expericence a sense of loneliness/isolation 感到孤独/疏离 relationship breakdowns 关系破坏 perform poorly 表现不好 翻译: One drawback of spending less time with families is that it will damage family relationships. They have a busy schedule every day, leaving no time to accompany children and other family members to enjoy some leisure activities. They may experience a sense of isolation at home. The instances of relationship breakdowns increase, and children perform poorly at school as they do not receive support from parents in schoolwork. Elderly people struggle with the sense of loneliness as they hardly see their children.

(5) 健康 A 追求事业 B 工作太累和压力太大 C 不够健康 背景:人们追求事业以健康为代价 解释(A-B):这些人设立不公平的目标,工作很长时间 解释(B-C):他们非常担心不能完成目标,会出现饮食混乱,睡眠缺乏等健康问题。

词伙: attain career objectives 实现职业目标 at the cost of health以健康为代价 unattainable obectives难获得的目标 eating disorder饮食混乱 sleep deprivation睡眠缺乏 health problems健康问题 翻译: People may sometimes have to attain their career objectives at the cost of health since they are tired and stressed out. These ambitious people may set bold, and sometimes unattainable objectives, such as earning millions of dollars a year, and to achieve such ambitions, they work long hours. They are worried about the risk of failing to meet deadlines, and suffer from eating disorders, sleep deprivation and health problems caused by inactivity.

(6) 经济 A 生育下降 B 老龄人口上升 C 对经济有影响 背景:追求事业的人选择晚生孩子 解释(A-B):他们觉得组建家庭是个负担,或者对事业进展是威胁,可能30岁以后生孩子 解释(B-C):这意味着50岁以上的工作者会增多,劳动生产率下降,导致经济缓慢增长。

词伙: career ambition职业抱负 low birth rate低出生率 start a family 生孩子 翻译: People who are obsessed with their career ambitions may choose to have babies later in lives and the low birth rate can damage the economy as the working population is increasingly older. They may regard starting a family as a burden and a threat to career progression. They may not consider having a baby until they are in 30s. Their fertility, however, drops with age, and this means that the proportion of young workers relative to people aged 50 or older will increase. The productivity of the workforce may decline as well, and this can lead to an economic slowdown in the long run.


25 生活价值观:社会生活和团队工作

人们不喜欢社交的原因:

(1) A 科技发展 B 人们使用各种科技方面的娱乐去消磨时间 C 不社交 背景:科技给人们的娱乐方式带来了变化,他们可以享受不同形式的娱乐活动。 举例:比如,他们会玩电脑游戏,用手机和朋友聊天,和看电影。所有的活动都能取代常规的选择,比如和朋友去电影院,一起打球,这些活动都包含和其他人的互动。

词伙: pass the time 打发时间 forms of entertainment 娱乐方式 enjoy different leisure activities 享受不同的休闲活动 play computer games 玩电脑游戏 chat with friends 和朋友聊天 use mobile phones 用手机 watch films online 看网上电影 substitue for 替代 conventional choices 传统的选择 go to the cinema with friends和朋友去影院 翻译: People today are less sociable since they can pass the time by using different forms of entertainment. Technology has led to changes in what people do for pleasure, and they can enjoy different leisure activities in isolation. For example, they can play computer games, chat with friends by using mobile phones and watch films online. All these activities substitute for those conventional choices, such as going to the cinema with friends and playing sport together, which involve interactions with others.

(2) 科技 A.各种科技让人们可以独立工作,B.完成事情 C.对关系网的依赖减少 背景:科技让人们独立工作,没有人脉也可以执行任务 解释(A-B):当工作中需要解决问题,他们能在网上找到问题的答案。 解释(A-B):计算机程序,移动电话应用程序和工具,使他们自己能够处理问题。 解释(B-C)他们不重视参加社交活动来建立人脉

词伙: meet new friends 见新朋友 enable people to work independently使人们独立工作 perform tasks without using social networks 不用社交网络执行任务 come across problems 遇到问题 computer programmes计算机程序 mobile phone apps and tools移动电话应用程序和工具 attach importance to 重视 attend networking events 参加社交活动 翻译: Another reason is that people do not consider it important to meet new friends. Technology enables people to work independently, and perform tasks without using social networks. Whenever they come across problems at work, they find answers online. There are also computer programmes, mobile phone apps and tools which empower them to deal with everything themselves. They do not attach importance to building a network of contacts by attending networking events, so they tend to be less socially active.

(3) 生活方式 A.生活忙,B.需要赶任务 C.没有时间交友 背景:人们需要努力工作在激烈的竞争中生存下来。 解释(A-B)经理,工程师,办公室职员加班工作才能在最后期限之前完成他们的任务 解释(B-C)他们减少社交时间,因此他们到回家已经非常劳累了。

词伙: the fast pace of life 生活步伐快 survive the cut-throat competition 在激烈的竞争中生存下来 handle their workloads 处理好他们的工作量 meet the deadline在最后期限截止之前 return home 回家 翻译: The fast pace of life also leads to a drop in the time for social life. People have to work hard to survive the cut-throat competition. It is not unusual for managers, engineers and office clerks to work overtime every day to handle their workloads and meet the deadline. The time for socialisation thus dwindles, as they return home tired.

(4) A.人口增长 B 人们参加社会活动认识新朋友的地方少 C 不社交 背景:城市非常拥挤,社交活动的使用地是有限的 举例:过去人们去公园晨跑,参观街区市场,在城市广场看户外音乐秀 解释(A-B)场地都用来盖房了。市民没有机会和社区的其他成员交流

词伙: population expansion 人口扩张 open spaces 开放空间 go jogging 慢跑 visit street market 参观街道集市 watch outdoor musical shows 观看户外音乐剧 community activities 社区活动 housing development 房地产开发 city dwellers 市民 talk to other members of community 和其他的社区成员交谈 翻译: Population expansion is another reason why people are less interested in mixing with their peers. Cities are overcrowded, and open spaces available for social activities are limited. In the past, people could go jogging in parks, visit street markets and watch outdoor musical shows in city squares, but now these community activities have disappeared as space is used for housing development. City dwellers do not have opportunities to talk to other members of community.

交友的好坏处

(1) A.花时间社交 B.交很多朋友 C. 对人们的职业生涯是有益的 解释 (A-B)花时间社交有助于人们交到朋友。 (B-C)人脉网络使人们更容易获得更多的职业发展机会。 举例:比如更好的工作机会和经营一家成功企业的好机会。 具体例子:例如,参加筹款活动可以帮助人们认识政府官员和成功的商人,他们有资源和权力使自己的事业受益。

词伙: be benefical for 对……有益 professional life 职业生涯 make more friends 交更多朋友 gain more opportunities获得工作机会 career progression 职业发展 better job opportunities 更好的工作机会 run a successful busines 经营生意很成功 fund-raising event 筹款项目 government officials 政府官员 successful business people 成功的商人 benefit one’s career 有益于职业 翻译: Spending time on social life is beneficial for people’s professional life. It can help people make more friends, and a network of contacts makes it easier for people to gain more opportunities for career progression, such as better job opportunities and a good chance of running a successful business. For example, attending a fund-raising event may help people meet government officials and successful business people, who have resources and power to benefit one’s career.

(2) 个人能力 A.社交 B. 与别人交流 C. 人们能够学习和提高沟通技巧 解释(B-C)需要用礼貌的方式和别人交谈,倾听别人,选择正确的话题或改变话题以便在社交场合受欢迎。 C的深化:这些在社会生活中学习到的技能也将用于他们的工作中。

词伙: learn and sharpen communication skills 学习和提升交流能力 talk to others in polite ways 用礼貌的方式和别人交谈 listen to others 倾听他人 change subjects 转换话题 keep others interested 使他人保持兴趣 on social occasions 在社交场合 翻译: Additionally, people are able to learn and sharpen communication skills when socialising with friends. They will gradually learn that they need to talk to others in polite ways, listen to others, pick the right topics, and change subjects if necessary to keep others interested, if they want to be popular on social occasions. These skills learnt in social life also will be used in their jobs.

(3) 生活方式 A 交友 B 解压 C 对健康有好处 背景:社交生活让人们放松 解释(A-B):和朋友交流能获得建议和鼓励,对跨过难关有帮助 解释(A-B):可以去户外活动,也能减压

词伙: be of benefit to health 对健康有益 feel relaxed 感到放松 lighten their moods 缓解他们的情绪 gain some encouragement and advice 获得一些鼓励和建议 difficult situations 困难的环境 outdoor activities 户外活动 reduce stress 缓解压力 翻译: Having a rich social life is also of benefit to health as people feel relaxed when spending time with friends. Talking to friends can lighten their moods as they may gain some encouragement and advice from those who have more experience in handling some difficult situations. On top of this, socialisation involves outdoor activities, from hiking, travelling to jogging together, which can reduce stress.

(4) 个人发展 A.花时间在社交 B.没时间学习和工作 C.浪费可以提升学习和工作技能的时间 解释(A-B)人们出去和朋友玩,没时间学习工作 举例:去酒吧,参加派对,一起打游戏浪费时间 解释(B-C)这些时间可以用来学习与工作相关的有用技能。不利于未来的职业发展

词伙: a waste of time 浪费时间 hang out with friends 和朋友出去玩 go to the pub 去酒吧 attend parties 参加聚会 play video games 打电脑游戏 consume valuable time 浪费宝贵的时间 will be harmful for 不利于 professional development 职业发展 翻译: But too much time in social life could be a waste of time for people. People who spend more time in hanging out with friends may have less time in working and studying. Going to the pub, attending parties and playing video games together can consume valuable time, which can otherwise be used for learning useful skills related to jobs. This will be harmful for his professional development in the future.

(5) 行为 A 社交 B 认识不好的朋友 C 养成不好的习惯 解释(B-C):负面的同伴压力会迫使人们遵循一些错误的行为,会对一个人的健康产生破坏性影响。 举例:抽烟,酗酒,吸毒,疯狂购物

词伙: form some negative habits 形成不好的习惯 mix with friends 和朋友混在一起 have good character 具有良好品格 negative peer pressure 不好的同伴压力 have a damaging effect on 有不好的影响 compulsive shopping 强制消费 follow some wrong behavioural norms 遵循一些错误的行为准则 binge drinking 酗酒 taking drugs 吸毒 翻译: People may even form some negative habits if they mix with friends who do not have good character. Negative peer pressure can have a damaging effect on one’s well-being, if people are pressured to follow some wrong behavioural norms, such as smoking, binge drinking, taking drugs and compulsive shopping.

团队工作的好坏处:

(1) 效率 A. 团队合作 B.人们可以一起合作 C. 提高工作效率 解释(B-C)人们在擅长的领域有经验,知识,技能可以更快得完成任务 解释(B-C)团队可以集思广益,可以找更好的方法解决问题 C拓展:生产力就可以提高,公司就能获得更多的利润

词伙: promote working efficiency 提升工作效率 complete a task 完成任务 be responsible for 为……负责 improve productivity 提高生产率 earn more profits 获取更多利润 better solutions to the problem 解决问题的更好方法 翻译: Working in a team helps to promote working efficiency. People have experience, knowledge and expertise in different tasks, so they can complete a task faster if they are responsible for part of teamwork at which they are good. Additionally, the team can brainstorm together, and find better solutions to the problem. In this way, productivity can be improved and the company is able to earn more profits.

(2) 个人发展 A 团队工作 B 有压力提升自己的能力 C 对个人发展很好 解释(A-B):团队中有很多优秀的人,团队的其他成员可以受到鼓舞,学习他们的工作方式和培养同样的工作素质。 对比:如果没有好的示范,人们感受不到提升自己技能的需要

词伙: upgrade skills 提升技能 professional development 职业发展 well-disciplined 良好的自制力 behave in the same manner 以同样的方式行事 develop the same qualities 培养同样的品质 role models 榜样 翻译: Working in a strong group can also push people to upgrade skills for professional development. The team may have some excellent members who are well-disciplined, ambitious and highly productive, so the rest of the team can be inspired to behave in the same manner and develop the same qualities. People who work alone without role models may not feel the need to improve their own skills.

(3) 效率 A.团队合作 B. 矛盾,并且有一些成员没有能力 C. 降低效率 解释(A-B)不同的人有不同想法,就会有矛盾。 解释(A-B)一些团队成员没有能力为团队做出贡献,履行他们的职责。

词伙: lower efficiency 降低效率 hold different ideas有不同观点 break out 爆发 slow the progress 放慢进度 are not capable of 没有能力 have organisational skills 有组织能力 perform their duties履行义务 翻译: However, teamwork can also lower efficiency in some cases. Different people will hold different ideas about how to complete work, and arguments will break out, which can slow the progress of the whole team. Besides, in one team, some team members are not capable of contributing to the team, or they do not have organisational skills to perform their duties. The poor performance of some people can definitely make the whole team less productive.

(4) 个人发展 A 团队工作 B 依赖他人 C 不思进取,工作能力没有提高 背景:团队中的一些成员可能愿意承担更大的责任和承担更多的任务。(原因:他们希望团队成功,或者是因为他们受到内部奖励(如个人发展)的驱动。) 解释(B-C):其他一些人倾向于利用勤奋的队友,因此他们失去了专注于工作的动力。

词伙: achieve their objectives 获得目标 take greater responsibility and assume more tasks 承担更多责任,完成更多任务 internal rewards 内在奖励 personal developments 个人发展 take advantage of 利用 lose the motivation 失去动力 be dedicated to work 投入于工作 翻译: Another danger of working in a team is that people tend to rely on others, instead of working hard to achieve their objectives. Some members of team may be willing to take greater responsibility and assume more tasks, possibly because they want the team to succeed or because they are driven by internal rewards such as personal developments. Some other people, by contrast, tend to take advantage of hardworking teammates, so they lose the motivation to be dedicated to work.


26 生活价值观:快乐、压力、工作

如何定义好工作 和 提高工作满意度

(1) 生活质量:收入好,解决基本的需求,提升生活质量。 解释:生活成本与日俱增,商品越来越消费不起。而高收入,不仅能支付生活基本开支,如水电账单、房贷、孩子学费等,还能用来购买保险和储备养老;而且,收入高,人们还可以度假、买奢侈品或花钱买高科技设备,生活质量得以提升。

词伙: give priority to sth.,search for a job, cover basic needs,improve the quality of life, high living costs,afford expenses,house mortgage, buy insurance,prepare for retirement,thanks to, high-paying jobs, take a vacation, afford luxuries, hi-tech gadgets 翻译: People give priority to income when searching for a job as income can cover basic needs and improve the quality of life. Living costs are higher than ever and goods are less affordable. With the high income,it is easy for people to afford expenses, such as water and electricity bills, house mortgage, children’s tuition and so on, and the rest can be used to buy insurance and prepare for retirement.Additionally, thanks to the high-paying jobs,people can take a vacation, afford luxuries and spend money on hi-tech gadgets, which can improve the standard of living.

(2) 成就感:提高收入可以给员工成功感 解释:大家一般都觉得一个人的收入反映了他或她对雇主赚钱的价值。如果员工得到更高的薪水,他们会感到自己受到重视,并明白他们的才华、努力和贡献得到了公司的认可。他们会觉得自己的事业进步了,获得了幸福感。

词伙: pay rise, increase job satisfaction, create a sense of fulfilment,value to, feel valued be recognised by,advance one’s career,gain a sense of happiness 翻译: A pay rise can increase job satisfaction by creating a sense of fulfilment. It is logic to think that one’s income reveals his or her value to the profit-making of the employer. If staff are offered a higher salary, they will feel valued and understand that their talent, effort and contribution are recognised by the company. They will feel that they have advanced their career and gained a sense of happiness.

(3) 生活质量: 工作稳定,保障好,有安全感。 解释:商业环境日新月异,因此很多人关注工作保障。有人愿意长期在大公司工作,因为这些公司通常会提供额外福利,如带薪假期、医疗保险,甚至住房福利。雇主也会加入社会养老计划,因此,雇员离开职场后可以享受舒适的退休生活。

词伙: a sense of security, provide job-related benefits, business environment,be of concern to sb.,in the workplace, be interested in, work for big companies permanently, provide fringe benefits,paid holidays, medical insurance,housing allowances, pension scheme of the country,enjoy a comfortable retirement 翻译: A good job is also expected to give people a sense of security by providing job-related benefits. The business environment is constantly changing, and job security is of concern to many people in the workplace. Some of them are interested in working for big corporations permanently, and these companies normally provide fringe benefits such as paid holidays, medical insurance and even housing allowances. Employers also participate in the pension scheme of the country, so employees can enjoy a comfortable retirement at the end of their working lives.

(4) 社会关系: 健康和平等的合作关系是好工作的重要指标,因为人们在合作中可以找到归属感。 解释:人有时会自信心不足,如果能一直从同事或上级那得到支持和建议,他们会表现上乘。当他们表达对公司政策或工作做法的想法时,无需担心被报复或惩罚。因此他们对公司发展和个人职业发展都抱有信心,就会对工作很满意。

词伙: healthy and supportive relationships, the key to a satisfying job,a sense of belonging to a strong group,lack confidence in sth.,gain support and advice from sb., perform duties well,express ideas about sth.,work practices, worry about retaliation or punishment, have a positive attitude towards,be satisfied with the job 翻译: Healthy and supportive relationships with colleagues and supervisors are also the key to a satisfying job as people find a sense of belonging to a strong group. People sometimes lack confidence in their ability to complete their work. If they gain support and advice constantly from coworkers or superiors, they will be able to perform their duties well. When they express their ideas about company policy or work practices, they do not need to worry about retaliation or punishment. They will have a positive attitude towards the future development of the company as well as have optimism about their career advancement, they will be satisfied with the job.

(5) 知识:职业培训,更能应付工作挑战,对工作满意。 解释:职业培训是决定员工对工作看法的另一因素。现代社会竞争激烈,无数求职者进入职场时,不具备足够技巧和知识来处理高难度工作。因而,他们对能提高技能和拓宽知识面很感兴趣。有员工培训体制的公司能吸引渴求事业成功的人。他们有进步的感觉,即使竞争白炽化也会保持积极的心态。

词伙: job training,perception of,be highly competitive,enter the workforce, sufficient skills and knowledge,sharpen skills, expand the knowledge base, get prepared for challenges,staff training system, attract people, intend to do sth.,a sense of progress,fierce competition,stay positive 翻译: Job training is another factor that determines employees’ perception of a job. The modern world is highly competitive, and countless job-seekers enter the workforce without sufficient skills and knowledge to handle demanding jobs. They are interested in the opportunities to sharpen skills and expand the knowledge base to get prepared for challenges in their careers. If companies have staff training systems, they can attract people who intend to have a successful career. They have a sense of progress and stay positive even when competition is fierce.

(6) 家庭:家庭友好政策,工作家庭平衡,员工满意。 解释:大部分员工有孩子,如果为了工作牺牲家庭生活,他们会愧疚和不开心。他们希望参与孩子的抚养,而不是缺席某些重要事件,如家庭成员的生日会等。如果公司能考虑到这些需求,并能给员工扮演不同角色提供灵活性,那么员工会很忠诚。

词伙: family-friendly policies, the key to sth.,job satisfaction,strike a balance between work and life,keep a good mood,feel guilty and unhappy,sacrifice sth. for, be involved in sth.,upbringing of children, be absent from,birthday parities,consider this need, offer flexibility, juggle different roles, inspire loyalty 翻译: Family-friendly policies are also the key to job satisfaction as employees can strike a balance between work and life and always keep a good mood. A considerable number of employees have children and they feel guilty and unhappy if they have to sacrifice their family life for their jobs. They want to be involved in the upbringing of children, rather than absent from some major events, such as birthday parties of their family. If companies consider this need and offer workers more flexibility in juggling different roles, it can inspire loyalty.

(7) 个人价值: 完成梦想,实现个人价值。 解释:大部分年轻人在不需要担心基本生活需求的环境里长大,他们越来越关注是否能通过达成个人目标和完成梦想而过上有价值的生活。如果公司为他们提供职位、资金或项目以发挥潜力,他们将受到激励,并有动力努力工作。这让他们在工作中有一种深深的满足感。

词伙: be popular with sb.,allow sb. to do sth.,achieve ambitions,show talents, a large proportion of people,worry about the access to food, survival needs, be increasingly concerned about,lead rewarding lives,achieve personal targets, reach potential, be stimulated/motivated to do, a sense of contentment 翻译: A job can be popular with people if it allows them to achieve ambitions and show their talents. A large proportion of young people grow up in a world where they do not worry about the access to food, or other survival needs. They are increasingly concerned about whether they can lead rewarding lives by achieving their personal targets and making their dreams come true. If companies offer them positions, capital or projects to reach potential, they will be stimulated and motivated to work hard. This can give them a deep sense of contentment in their jobs.

(8) 自我提升:工作要对社会有意义。解释:如果选择一家公司从事有意义的事业,他们很自豪,而不是关注该职位的经济回报。他们愿意看到自己的努力和努力对弱势群体的生活质量产生积极的影响,对社会产生影响。当他们为使世界变得更好而做的事情受到赞扬时,无论他们的收入如何,他们都能获得成就感。

词伙: 翻译: People also consider whether their jobs can contribute to society. They take pride in choosing a company to do something for worthy courses, rather than pay attention to financial rewards of the position. They are willing to see their hard work and effort make a positive difference to the quality of life of disadvantaged people and to the community. They can gain a sense of accomplishment when they receive compliments on something they do to change the world for better, regardless of income.

压力高的原因

(1) 失业率高,经济不好, 生活困难,经济压力大

词伙: tough economic times, live in poverty 翻译: Unemployment and financial difficulties can put strain on people, especially in tough economic times.

(2) 科技发展很快,需要不断学东西

词伙: technology is changing rapidly, increase new knowledge 翻译: Technology is changing rapidly. People are pressured to increase new knowledge and keep up with the modern world.

(3) 拜金,注重物质财富,喜欢攀比,长时间工作

词伙: money-oriented, material possessions, work long hours 翻译: People are increasingly money-oriented and obsessed with material possessions. They tend to work long hours. This can put them under pressure.

(4) 时间管理有问题,东西没做完

词伙: time management 翻译: Poor time management skills can be a cause of stress as well. People feel stressed out if they fail to complete work.

(5) 家庭关系不好,社会生活不好,孤独和压抑

词伙: poor family relationships, weak social connections, experience a sense of loneliness 翻译: People experience a sense of loneliness due to poor family relationships and weak social connections. This can cause stress.

(6) 缺乏运动和饮食均衡,疾病增加,对未来没有信心

词伙: lack of physical activity, do not have a nutritionally balanced diet, prone to health problems, do not have a positive outlook on life 翻译: Some people are prone to health problems due to a lack of physical activity and a nutritionally balanced diet. This is a source of stress because they do not have a positive outlook on life.

如何减少压力:

(1) 效率:加强自我管理,提高工作效率。 解释:压力来自于无法有效地处理工作负荷:当人们不能有效地完成工作时,他们就会觉得紧张、焦虑、沮丧和害怕。因此,人们应该掌握一些基本技能,如管理时间,制定待办事项清单,在日历上标明主要的约会和最后期限。这样,他们就能够按时完成所有任务,而不是等到最后一刻才完成工作。

词伙: Self-management,arise from, the inability to do, handle workloads,complete work efficiently,feel anxious,feel stressed, feel frustrated, feel scared, acquire basic skills,make a to-do list,mark major appointments on ,leave work undone 翻译: Better self-management is definitely the key to stress management. Stress arises from the inability to handle workloads effectively: when people are not able to complete work efficiently, they will feel anxious, stressed, frustrated and scared. For this reason, people should acquire some basic skills, such as managing time, making a to-do list, marking major appointments and deadlines on the calendar, so they are capable of completing all tasks on time rather than leave work undone until the last minute.

(2) 健康:身体健康,可以轻松应付压力。 解释:健康的人通常都能对慢性压力未雨绸缪。原因一,身体条件好的人一般把事情安排得井然有序,例如:早起和分配时间在家做饭。这意味着他们也规划自己的工作,在最后期限之前可以完成任务。另一个原因是:健康给人以应付压力所必需的能量、耐力和信心。很健康的人可以冷静应对压力,也鲜少会出现精神崩溃。

词伙: be well prepared to do sth.,handle chronic stress, enjoy satisfying physical condition, keep everything in order, get up early,allocate time to sth., plan one’s work, meet deadlines, energy, stamina and confidence,cope with stress, a high level of fitness, react to stress calmly, suffer from nervous breakdown 翻译: Healthy people are normally well prepared to handle chronic stress. The first reason is that people who enjoy satisfying physical condition keep everything in order, for example, getting up early and allocating time to home-cooking. This means that they also plan their work as well and have no problem in meeting deadlines. Another reason is that health gives energy, stamina and confidence which are required for coping with stress. With a high level of fitness, people react to stress calmly and hardly suffer from any nervous breakdown.

(3) 知识:专业知识,冷静处理压力。 解释:当人们觉得自己不太可能解决一些问题时,压力会对他们产生毁灭性的影响。唯一预防方法是:增加知识和提高技能。受过良好教育的人,如果在解决棘手问题方面有丰富的经验,就会在面临压力的情况下保持冷静。他们知道用什么方法去解决问题。

词伙: have a devastating effect on, be unlikely to do, deal with some problems, prevent sth. from doing,increase knowledge and upgrade skills,well-educated people, have considerable experience, solve thorny problems,how to approach a problem 翻译: Expertise also holds the key to stress management. Stress can have a devastating effect on people, when they feel that they are unlikely to deal with some problems. The only way to prevent this from happening is to increase knowledge and upgrade skills. Well-educated people who have considerable experience in solving thorny problems will stay calm in the face of stressful situations. They understand how to approach a problem and solve it.

(4) 心理健康和心态:调整期望值,制定合理的目标。 解释:高期望值有时迫使人们追求一些不切实际或无法实现的目标。如果不能达到目标,他们会产生一些消极情绪,沉溺于自我怀疑,这会雪上加霜。如此一来,即便是简单的任务看起来也很有挑战性和很大的压力。所以,人们应该降低期望,设定更多可实现的目标。他们可以轻松地达成期望。

词伙: adjust expectations, an integral part of dealing with stress,high expectations pressure sb. to do, fail to attain their objectives, experience some negative emotions ,indulge in self-doubt, add the stress level,avoid this situation,lower one’s expectations,set more achievable targets,match sth. at ease 翻译: Adjusting expectations is also an integral part of dealing with stress. High expectations sometimes pressure people to pursue some unrealistic or unattainable goals. If they fail to attain their objectives, they will experience some negative emotions and indulge in self-doubt, which can add the stress level. In the future, even some easy tasks appear to be challenging and highly stressful. To avoid this situation, people should lower their expectations and set more achievable targets. They can match such expectations at ease.

影响工作满意度的原因:

(1) 基本收入是否可以满足基本生活水准,是否可以养活家人,家人是否生活安稳

词伙: maintain a basic standard of living, feed the family, live a comfortable life 翻译: The salary people earn can determine job satisfaction because with money, they can maintain a basic standard of living, feed the family and live a comfortable life.

(2) 是不是有提升工作,职位提升的机会

词伙: job promotions 翻译: People are satisfied with a job if they see the prospect of job promotions.

(3) 工作环境是不是轻松、安全、舒适、健康,是不是有好的积极性和心情

词伙: relaxing, comfortable, a good mood, positive attitude 翻译: Working conditions are important to people who are interested in a relaxing, comfortable office. They can maintain a good mood when working in a well-furnished workplace.

(4) 有没有假期、灵活工作时间去解压,陪伴家人,有社会生活,娱乐和运动

词伙: take a vacation, flexible work hours, wind down, enjoy the company of family, have a rich social life 翻译: People are happy to work for companies which allow for flexible work hours and offer paid holidays. They can thus have more opportunities to wind down, enjoy the company of family and have a rich social life.

(5) 工作关系,是否可以获得同事和上司的支持

词伙: work relationships, colleagues are supportive 翻译: Work relationships also affect people’s satisfaction with a job. They want to have supportive colleagues and a good atmosphere in the workplace.

(6) 是否能够获得技术和知识,职业不断发展,在公司决策里占据更重要的地位,有更多的职务

词伙: gain skills and knowledge, progress one’s career, play a key role, perform more duties 翻译: In a good job, people can gain skills and knowledge to progress one’s career. They desire to play a key role in decision making at some point in the future and perform more duties.

(7) 是否能够找到合适的职位、公司和行业去实现自己的才华,实现自己的梦想

词伙: develop one’s talents, realise one’s ambitions 翻译: People are happy with accepting a job in which they can develop talents and realise their ambitions.

经常换工作的原因:

(1) 不够专注,很难专业

词伙: fail to develop expertise 翻译: People who change jobs frequently fail to develop expertise because it requires commitment.

(2) 雇主觉得你不够忠诚,不会给很高的工资,也缺乏不断晋升的机会

词伙: offer a high salary, climb the corporate ladder 翻译: Employers may have doubts about the loyalty of people who have a varied career. Companies are unwilling to offer a high salary. They may find it difficult to climb the corporate ladder.

work from home 的好处:

(1) 不用通勤

词伙: reduce the need for commuting 翻译: Working remotely can reduce the need for commuting.

(2) 雇员不用因为个人原因而离职,譬如说生孩子,搬家,照顾老人等.

词伙: quit jobs, conceive a child, move to a new home, look after ageing members of family 翻译: Without travelling to work every day, people are less likely to quit jobs for personal reasons, such as conceiving a child, moving to a new home and looking after ageing members of family.

(3) 雇员省路费,雇主减少办公室成本

词伙: offer savings in transportation, cut overheads 翻译: Teleworking offers savings in transportation. Companies can cut overheads if there are few people working in the office.

work from home 的坏处:

(1) 和同事缺乏交流,合作

词伙: lack communication, cannot work collaboratively 翻译: Teleworkers lack communication with colleagues working in the central office, meaning that they cannot work collaboratively.

(2) 缺乏交流导致雇员不能够成长,想出新的东西

词伙: grow personally, brainstorming, come up with new ideas 翻译: People who work from home may miss out some opportunities to grow personally as they are less likely to brainstorm with fellow workers face to face and come up with new ideas.

(3) 家庭会影响工作

词伙: interfere with performance in the workplace 翻译: Families can interfere with performance of people who work remotely as they are distracted from time to time.


27 生活价值观: 名人

名人的影响:

(1) A 名人影响力变大 B 大家崇拜和模仿 C 拥有成功的素质 解释(A-B)年轻人崇拜名人,希望能像那些高调人物一样成功和受人尊敬。这就是为什么年轻一代喜欢读名人如何取得成功的故事 举例:体育明星们多年来一直致力于提高技能和身体素质,然后才能在体育赛事中赢得奖牌。这可以促进一种观念,即勤奋和坚持是一个人取得成就必不可少的品质,如果年轻人想要成功,他们会努力形成这些品质

词伙: role models 道德模范 developing good character and qualities养成良好品质和品格 high-profile figures 名人 achieve success取得成功 improve skills and fitness提高技能和身体素质 promote the idea促进一种观念 be essential to one’s achievement取得成就必不可少的 form these qualities 形成这些品质 翻译: Celebrities are role models of their fans and followers, teaching the younger generation about the importance of developing good character and qualities. Young people admire celebrities and wish to be as successful and respectable as those high-profile figures. This is why younger generations love reading stories about how celebrities achieve success. For example, sport stars apply themselves to improving skills and fitness for many years before they can win medals in sports events. This can promote the idea that hardwork and persistance are qualities essential to one’s achievement, and young people will try to form these qualities if they desire to succeed.

(2) A 名人影响力变大 B 媒体曝光率带动产业发展 C 促进经济 解释(A-B)他们的歌迷们愿意买票观看著名无神论者的比赛、电影明星的电影和著名音乐家的现场音乐会 解释(A-B)也有一些公司通过销售纪念品来赚取利润,例如印有名人名字的T恤衫和帽子,以及制作具有知名人物的电视节目 解释(B-C):这些企业不仅通过纳税直接为经济做出贡献,而且提供就业机会,这对经济发展也很重要

词伙: create numerous business opportunities for companies可以为不同行业的公司创造无数商机 buy tickets买票 renowned musicians著名音乐家 earn profits赚取利润 sell mementos销售纪念品 produce TV shows 制作电视节目 provide employment 提供就业机会 翻译: The economic value of celebrities can never be exaggerated as their high media exposure can create numerous business opportunities for companies in different industries. Their fans are willing to buy tickets to watch the games of famous athletes, films of movie stars and the live concerts of renowned musicians. There are also companies which earn profits by selling mementos, such as T-shirts and caps which have names of celebrities, and by producing TV shows featuring noteworthy figures. These businesses not only contribute directly to the economy by paying tax but also provide employment which is also important to economic progress.

(3) 行为 A 明星影响大 B 树立一些不好的榜样 C 人们会模仿 解释(A-B)有些人可能一夜之间赚了一大笔钱,把他们的钱用于一些恶习,如吸毒和酗酒。 解释(A-B) 一些电视名人的丑闻,如性侵犯和婚外恋,也不时成为头条新闻。 解释(B-C)这些坏习惯可能会扭曲年轻人对成功人士的看法,从而对他们产生不利影响。其中一些粉丝可能会模仿这种行为。

词伙: set bad examples 树立坏榜样 ardent fans狂热的粉丝 have some bad habits有一些坏习惯 use illegal substances and alcoholism 使用药物和酗酒 The scandals of some TV personalities 一些电视名人的丑闻 sex assaults and extramarital affairs 性侵犯和婚外恋 distort their views 扭曲他们的看法 copy such behaviour 模仿这种行为 翻译: However, some celebrities can set bad examples for their ardent fans as they have some bad habits. Some people may earn a fortune overnight and use their money for some vices, such as using illegal substances and alcoholism. The scandals of some TV personalities, such as sex assaults and extramarital affairs, also make headlines from time to time. These bad habits might affect young people adversely by distorting their views of what a successful people does. Some of these fans may copy such behaviour.

(4) A 明星影响大 B 大家模仿不好的生活方式 C 消费变大 背景:有些电视节目、杂志和小报报道名人奢侈的生活方式 解释(A-B)而那些接触到这种信息的人也可能会花钱购买奢侈品,比如名牌服装、名牌包和高档手表 解释(B-C)如果人们不需要这些产品,这对他们来说可能是浪费钱。有些人甚至可以从银行借钱来支持这种生活方式,尽管这会对他们的财务状况产生负面影响

词伙: derive pleasure from material possessions关注物质财富带来的快乐 show the extravagant lifestyles of celebrities展示了名人奢侈的生活方式 be exposed to this kind of information接触到这种信息 a waste of money浪费钱 borrow money from banks从银行借钱 the negative effect on their financial situation会对他们的财务状况产生负面影响 翻译: Celebrities might also influence their fans’ attitude towards shopping, as more people pay attention to the pleasure derived from material possessions. There are TV programmes, magazines and tabloids showing the extravagant lifestyles of celebrities, and people who are exposed to this kind of information may also spend money in buying luxuries, such as designer outfits, branded bags and pricy watches. This could be a waste of money for them if the products are not needed by people. Some people may even borrow money from banks to support this lifestyle, despite the negative effect on their financial situation.

(5) 个人发展 A 明星影响大 B 影响大家对成功的看法 C 不努力工作和学习 解释(A-B)一些名人以他们的容貌、从家庭继承的财富和奢华的生活方式而出名。这可能传达出这样的信息:成功取决于运气、外表和家庭背景,而不是取决于勤奋和良好的品格 解释(B-C)接受这个想法的人可能很少注意为他们的职业学习实际技能

词伙: affect people’s perception影响人们对成功的最佳途径的认知 pay attention to professional development不注意职业发展 achieved fame 获得名气 inherit from 继承 pay little attention to learning practical skills 很少关注学习实际技能 翻译: The wealth and glamour of celebrities can sometimes affect people’s perception of the best route to success, and some people may not pay attention to professional development. Some famous people have achieved fame for their looks, the money they inherit from family, and for their luxurious lifestyle. This may convey the message that success is determined by luck, appearance and family background, rather than by industriousness and good character. People who accept this idea may pay little attention to learning practical skills for their career.


28 生活方式: 运动

(1) 生活方式 A 他们很忙 B 没有时间 C不运动 解释(A-B):工作市场竞争太过激烈,迫使人们不断学习或努力工作去为各种改变做准备 解释(A-B):学生们总是忙着做他们的作业,有工作的父母也要加班完成各项任务 解释(B-C):他们没有空闲时间去做运动

词伙: physical activity 体育活动 job market 工作市场 get prepared for all changes 为各种改变做准备 work overtime 加班 perform all tasks 完成各项任务 leisure time 空闲时间 翻译: People nowadays are busy and do not have time to do physical activity. The job market is intensely competitive, pushing people to study or work hard to get prepared for all changes. Students are always busy with their homework while working parents work overtime to perform all tasks. They do not have leisure time to do exercise.

(2) 设施 A 城市拥挤 B 没有设施 C 不运动 解释(A-B):人口激增让城市规划者把大部分的空间都用在了住房开发,给公园、空地和体育中心没有留下什么空间 解释(B-C):没有设施良好的可供做运动和体育活动的安全场所,人们会依然选在待在家里保持他们的久坐不动的生活方式

词伙: sports facilities 运动设施 primary cause 主要原因 population explosion 人口爆炸 housing development 住房开发 well-equipped 设施良好的 sedentary lifestyle 久坐不动的生活方式 翻译: The lack of access to sports facilities is another primary cause of inactivity. Population explosion has driven city planners to use a majority of space in cities for housing development, leaving little room for parks, open spaces and sports centres. Without the access to safe places well-equipped to support sport and physical activities, people would stay at home and maintain their sedentary lifestyle.

(3) 科技 A 科技发展 B 其他娱乐很多 C 他们就不会选择运动 解释(A-B):电脑手机在人们生活中都很常见,人们可能更愿意花时间在玩电脑游戏和看手机视频上 解释(B-C):这些活动占用的时间本来可以用来做对健康有益的活动

词伙: inactive lifestyle 懒散的生活方式 be more willing to 更愿意去做 play computer games 玩电脑游戏 watch videos on the phone 看手机视频 beneficial to health 对健康有益 翻译: Technology is another factor contributing to an inactive lifestyle . Computers and phones are more common in people’s lives, and people might be more willing to spend time in playing computer games and watching videos on the phone. These activities can use the leisure time which can otherwise be spent in activities beneficial to health.

(1) 知识 A 宣传 B 知道运动的好处 C 这样人们会更能接受运动 背景:有些人不知道做运动跟他们的生理心理健康有很大的关系 背景:他们也不知道懒散的生活方式会导致什么 解释(A-B):政府可以在网络上放一些视频,告诉大家运动可以减肥,减轻压力和提高自信心 举例:即使一些轻松的运动,像走路,也能让一个人的身体状态变得大大不同 解释(B-C):这会激励人们去经常运动

词伙: increase the awareness 提高意识 has a close relationship with 有很大关系 sport can combat obesity 运动可以减肥 lower stress levels 减轻压力 boost confidence 提高自信心 gentel exercise 轻松的运动 make a huge difference 很大的改变 翻译: The first method to encourgae people to do sports is to increase the awareness of the advantages of doing sports. Some people do not realise that doing sports has a close relationship with their physical and mental health. Nor do they have a good idea what an inactive lifestyle entails. The government can put some videos online showing sport can combat obesity, lower stress levels and boost confidence. Even gentle exercise like walking every day can make a huge difference to one’s physical condition. This will encourage people to exercise more regularly.

(2) 设施 A 建设体育设施 B 更好地运动 C 这样人们会更能接受运动 解释(A-B):如果每个社区都有游泳池,足球场,网球场和其他的体育设施,人们会更有可能每天做运动 解释(A-B):如果他们看见邻居或朋友在公园里慢跑、踢足球,他们也更可能跟着做

词伙: promote healthy living 促进健康生活 swimming pools 游泳池 soccor fields 足球场 tennis courts 网球场 jogging in the park 在公园慢跑 follow the suit 跟着做 翻译: Moreover, to promote healthy living, sports facilities need to be well-built and prepared to support them. If swimming pools, soccer fields, tennis courts and all other sports facilities are readily accessible in every community, people are more likely to make sport part of their daily lives. If they see neighbours and friends jogging in the park and playing soccer, they would possibly follow the suit.

(1) 经济 A 体育赛事 B 赚钱 C 促进经济 解释(A-B):举办活动意味着要增加在基础设施的投入,比如说竞技场,体育中心和交通设施,这也可以创造就业机会 解释(A-B):旅游业收入也会提高,因为来自各个国家的体育粉丝会聚在一起看比赛 解释(B-C):他们花在旅游上的钱,是众多大小企业的收入来源

词伙: host an international sports event 举办国际体育活动 sports centres 体育中心 transport facilities 交通设施 generate employment 创造就业机会 increase tourism revenue 提高旅游业收入 sports fans 体育粉丝 watch games and competitions 看比赛 a source of income 收入来源 翻译: Countries join the race to host an international sports event since they are confident in the economic benefits. Holding an event normally means increasing the investment in infrastructure, such as arenas, sports centres and transport facilities, which can generate employment. It can also increase tourism revenue, as sports fans from different countries would gather to watch games and competitions. The money they spend during their trips is a source of income for numerous businesses, small or large.

(2) 社会稳定,法律 A 体育赛事 B 提升民族自豪感 C 有利于社会团结 解释(A-B):人们会因为成功申请举办一个重大的活动而感到自豪,因为这体现了他们经济实力雄厚 解释(A-B):同时,运动员在比赛中的表现,尤其当他们赢得奖牌时,会提升公民的民族自豪感 解释(B-C):他们可能有不同的政治观点或者来自不同的民族,但是体育赛事会让他们忽略这些不同,他们会团结在一起支持运动员

词伙: national pride 民族自豪高 promote social unity 提高社会团结 win the bid 竞标成功 economic prowess 经济实力雄厚 win medal 赢得奖牌 political views 政治观点 翻译: Hosting an international sports event is a source of national pride and can help promote social unity. People are proud of winning the bid to host a significant event, which can show their economic prowess. Meanwhile, the performance of athletes in those events, especially when winning medals, boosts citizens’ pride in their motherland. They may have different political views or they may be from diverse ethnic backgrounds, but a sports event can distract attention from their differences. They stay united to support athletes.

(3) 健康 A 体育赛事 B 有助于宣传运动 C 人们想要去运动 解释(A-B):拿奖牌或者赢得冠军的运动明星会一夜之间变得家喻户晓,成为年轻人的榜样 解释(A-B):那庆祝成功和播放国歌的激动一刻会在媒体上反复播放 解释(B-C):有运动天分的年轻人可能会在将来的某一刻开始他们的运动生涯,因为他们想要成为民族英雄受到赞扬 解释(B-C):其他人可能不会追求运动职业,但是当他们看见体育训练给一个人的健康和体貌带来的积极影响,他们也可能对运动产生极大的兴趣

词伙: the general public 普罗大众 a household name 家喻户晓的名字 role model 榜样 sing national anthems 唱国歌 athletically talented 有运动天分 start the sport career 开始运动生涯 recieve acclaims 受到赞扬 national heros 民族英雄 develop an intense interest in sport 对运动产生极大的兴趣 翻译: A sports event is also a valuable opportunity to promote sports among the general public. Sport stars who win medals and championships can become a household name overnight and the role model for young people. The exciting moments of celebrating their achievements and singing national anthems are repeated broadcast in the media. Young people who are athletically talented may choose to play sport and start the sport career at some point in the future, as they intend to receive acclaims as national heroes. Other people may not pursue a career in sport, but they will possibly develop an intense interest in sport as they see the positive impact of physical training on one’s fitness and appearance.

(4) 生活标准 A 体育赛事 B 公众的钱乱用 C 影响民生 解释(A-B):那些为了体育赛事而修建的配套设施,在赛事结束后便会成为累赘物 解释(A-B):有些国家会在开幕式上大肆铺张,有时候会觉得没必要 解释(A-B):政府会为了提高运动员的成绩而增加训练他们的预算,但是同样数目的钱却没有花在解决公众的基本需求上,比如医疗

词伙: a waste of money 浪费钱 turn out to be 结果变成 white elephants 累赘物 opening ceremony 开幕式 increase the budget 增加预算 train sports professionals 训练运动员 in an attempt to 尝试 address the basic needs of the public 解决公众的基本需求 翻译: However, spending more money on international sports events might be a waste of money for the government. The sports complexes built for the event will turn out to be white elephants, once the event ends. Some countries may spend lavishly on the opening ceremony, which is sometimes considered to be unnecessary. The government also increases the budget for training sports professionals in an attempt to boost their performance in events, but it remains yet to be seen whether this amount of money can be spent in addressing the basic needs of the public, such as healthcare.

(5) 促进和平,各国增加了解

词伙: promote peace, political conflicts 翻译: International events can promote peace as countries would ignore political conflicts during events.

(6) 提高国际地位,吸引外国投资,让外国人知道一个国家具备的实力

词伙: in the international community, at the international stage, economic prowess, attract investment 翻译: Successfully hosting an event can attract investment as it shows the economic prowess of the host country in the international community.

(1) 费用很高,甚至亏损, 很多场馆不用

词伙: cause a loss, white elephants 翻译: Holding events like Olympics can cause a financial loss, and many facilities turn out be white elephants.

(2) 安保问题,包括如何管理暴力球迷,还有恐怖袭击

词伙: security issues, prevent terrorist attacks 翻译: Security issues are also a headache. The government should tighten security to prevent terrorist attacks.

(3) 运动员为了好的成绩,使用禁药,过分接受培训,导致受伤

词伙: doping, use drugs, banned substances, improve performance 翻译: Athletes use drugs and banned substances to improve performance. They train hard but get injured.

(4) 运动员的奢华生活会影响年轻人,年轻人甚至模仿运动员不好的行为(譬如说吸毒)

词伙: extravagant lifestyles, copy behaviour 翻译: Extravagant lifestyles can set a bad example to young people, who can copy behaviour of athletes.

(5) 造成政治的问题

词伙: political boycotts 翻译: Sports events can become platforms for people to show their political views. Political boycotts happen from time to time.


29 生活方式:饮食

(1) A fast food很流行 B 节省时间 C 提高效率 背景:生活节奏加快了,工作也极其繁忙 背景:人们每天没有时间做饭 解释(A-B):快餐或者外卖是做饭最好的替代品,因为人们不需要去买菜并且思考每天吃什么 解释(B-C):他们就可以花更多时间在工作和学习上

词伙: convenience food 方便食品 takeaway food 外卖 cut time in food preparation 减少食物准备时间 pace of life 生活节奏 sufficient time 足够的时间 devote more time to 花更多时间在…… 翻译: The popularity of fast foods such as convenience food and takeaway food matches the needs of people who intend to cut time in food preparation and complete more work every day. The pace of life has accelerated, and the workplace is extremely busy. People do not have sufficient time every day to cook a meal. Fast food or ordering a takeout meal is the best alternative to home-cooking, as people do not need to buy ingredients and decide what to eat every day. They can thus devote more time to their work or studies.

(2) 经济 A fast food很流行 B 大家消费 C 对经济有好处 解释(B-C):当更多的人频繁去快餐店,这些餐饮业的收入就会增加 解释(B-C):信誉良好的快餐连锁通常是主要的雇主,雇用着数以万计的员工 解释(B-C):他们也跟食品供应商和农民有着战略合作

词伙: a driver of economic growth 一个经济增长的驱动因素 frequent fast food restaurants 频繁去快餐店 catering businesses 餐饮业 fast food chains 快餐连锁 form strategic alliance with 形成战略合作 food suppliers 食品供应商 翻译: The fast food sector is also a driver of economic growth as it changes the ways people consume food. As more people frequent fast food restaurants, the revenue of these catering businesses will increase. Well-established fast food chains normally are major employers, hiring tens of thousands of people. They also form strategic alliances with food suppliers and farmers. The economic importance of fast food businesses will continue to increase as people lose interest in cooking at home.

(3) 健康 A fast food很流行 B 管理比较好 C 更加安全 解释:原材料是从精心挑选的食品供应商来的,再运输到工厂严格控制加工 解释:训练有素的员工会有条不紊地准备食物,确保食物是精心挑选、烹饪和保存的 对比:家庭制作或独立经营的餐馆不可能按照这样的工序和制作准备食物

词伙: fast food outlets 快餐分店 well-established procedures and systems 良好的工序和系统 carefully chosen suppliers 精心挑选的供应商 stand-alone 独立经营的 翻译: Fast food is also safe to eat for consumers as most, if not all, of fast food outlets are managed with well-established procedures and systems. Ingredients are acquired from carefully chosen suppliers and transported to plants where food is processed in controlled conditions. Well-trained staff prepare food systematically to ensure food is well selected, cooked and preserved. All these procedures and practices are not likely to be implemented in households or stand-alone restaurants.

(4) 健康 A fast food很流行 B 人们吃不健康的东西 C 对身体不好 解释:这些食品很高的热量和卡路里,对人们的身体不好,人们容易变胖和得心脏病 解释:除此之外,这些食物会用添加剂来保存,这些化学物质对身体不好 对比:快餐都是提前加工过的,营养价值比不上家里用新鲜食材做的饭

词伙: the prevalence of the fast food 快餐的流行 a positive trend 一个积极的趋势 detrimental to health 对健康有害 pre-processed 提前加工好的 nutrtional value 营养价值 home-cooked meals 家里做的饭 翻译: However, the prevalence of the fast foods is not a positive trend, mainly because it is not good for people’s health. Hamburgers, pizzas and other fast food items are high in calorie, sugar and salt, which are responsible for health problems such as obesity and heart disease. Besides,some additives are normally used in preserving fast foods, and these chemicals are detrimental to health. Finally, fast food is normally pre-processed so its nutritional value is normally lower than home-cooked meals, which use fresh ingredients.

(5) 家庭生活 A fast food很流行 B 大家不再喜欢在家做饭和聚餐 C 影响家庭文化 解释(A-B):人们往往在回家之前去餐馆吃一顿快餐,而不是享受为家人准备一顿饭 解释(B-C ):他们会错过洗菜、做饭和吃饭时可以和家人沟通的机会 举例:不跟孩子聊天,父母就不会知道孩子的学业如何以及他们有什么问题 结果(A-B):当快餐取代在家做饭,这些沟通的场合也会消失

词伙: erode traditional family values 损害传统家庭价值观 no longer 不在 tend to 往往 have a quick meal 快速用餐 miss out opportunities 错过机会 communication occasions 沟通场合 翻译: Fast food can also erode traditional family values as people are no longer interested in cooking and eating family dinners. People tend to have a quick meal at a restaurant before going home, instead of finding enjoyment in preparing a meal for their family. They can miss out opportunities to communicate with family when washing ingredients, cooking a meal and enjoying food with their family. Without talking to children, for example, parents may not have any clue how well their children handle schoolwork and what matters concern them. These communication occasions would disappear if fast food replaced home-cooked meals.

(6) 环境 A 快餐 C 造成环境问题 解释(A-C):很多人都是点外卖,塑料打包造成垃圾 解释(A-B):禽类养殖使用抗生素,粪便污染环境

词伙: 翻译: The consumption of fast food is also an environmental woe. Consumers of fast food have the habit of ordering takeaways, which are normally packaged with plastic material. This can create staggering amounts of waste, which cannot be disposed of easily. In addition, the fast expansion of the fast food industry can drive the demand for poultry, and the growth of battery farming is phenominal. Chickens are raised in small cages and antibiotics are applied to prevent diseases, but the waste of these farms can contaminate the environment.


30 生活方式:购物、节约、赶时尚

冲动消费/追逐时尚的原因

(1) 生活方式:通过购物和赶时尚作为自己一种生活的调节。 背景:现在大家生活节奏快,也没有很多时间去旅游、参加社交活动。 解释:购物和赶时尚可以和朋友聊天,出去吃个饭,放松一下。 解释:哪怕是window shopping也是一种运动,不用老是想着工作。

词伙: 翻译: Shopping and catching up with fashion is a good way for people to get away from stresses of modern life. The pace of life in modern cities is very fast, so people do not have much time to travel and socialise with friends and colleagues. But shopping and chasing for fashion can enable people to take a break from work: they can go out with friends to have dinner and talk about fashion to unwind. Window shopping is also considered as a form of exercise, and takes people’s minds off work for a while.

(2) 社会生活:比较喜欢攀比。解释:社会越来越物质,人们很多时候关注穿着,而不是你的素质和美德,人们会发现购买时尚的东西,更加能够得到别人的尊重、赞美、认可。解释2:买了时尚的东西,和身边的人有更多的话题。

词伙: catch up with peers, strong appetite for fashion, gain respect, recognition and praise 翻译: The tendency to catch up with peers is another factor contributing to the strong appetite for fashion. The modern world has become increasingly materialistic, and people attach importance to what you wear, rather than your qualities and merit. They find that they can gain respect, recognition and praise from others when they buy fashionable items. Meanwhile, they have more talking points with their friends if they own something stylish.

(3) 收入: 人们现在负担得起。解释:经济增长了,人们不再满足基本的需要,不只是关注衣服的质量、是否耐用,在乎的是否漂亮,是否时尚,是否体现他们的品味和审美观。

词伙: earn higher income, economic growth, pay attention to …., show their taste and perception of beaty 翻译: Another reason is that they are now able to earn higher income to buy the latest trend. Economic growth has led to a shift/transition from functions of clothing to styles. Shoppers no longer pay attention to the quality of clothing and whether they can keep it long. They focus on whether outfits are visually attractive and in fashion. They want to show their taste and perception of beauty.

(4) 自我发展:有一种自豪感。解释:广告、明星秀、名人的采访都展示有钱的人使用名牌,久而久之,人们就会认可时尚体现了社会的地位,因此,他们买得起,就会觉得自己非常的成功。

词伙: a sense of pride, fashion brands, show social status 翻译: Shopping and following fashion can give people a sense of pride. Advertisements, fashion shows and TV interviews of celebrities all show that rich people are all fans of fashion brands. As time goes on, people tend to accept that fashion can show social status. If they are able to afford it and shop frequently, they will feel they are highly successful.

行为的好坏

(1) 经济:促进经济发展。解释:消费增加,商业的收入提高,产生更多工作,对于经济的促进作用。

词伙: promote economic development, increase the revenue, create more jobs 翻译: Shopping and following fashion can be beneficial to a country in economic terms. Consumer spending on designer clothes can increase the revenue of companies in this industry. To fill the growing demand for fashion, companies in the fashion industry have to hire more people, such as designers.This is a virtuous cycle: as more people are hired, the high level of consumer spending can be sustained and this is one driver of economic growth.

(2) 生活质量:花钱太多。解释:时尚比较贵,而且老是变,不断花钱买,入不敷出。

词伙: living standard, get into debt, household goods 翻译: However, the obsession with fashion and spending too much money on fashion could have a negative impact on the standard of living of people. Due to the changing fashion, consumers need to constantly spend a large amount of money on buying these goods. Fashion is also expensive and can cost people a lot of money. They may finally get into debt and spend less money in other expenses, such as furniture and household goods. They are not able to maintain a good standard of living.

(3) 环境:造成污染和垃圾。解释:追求时尚,东西拿不久,有一种throw-away culture。

词伙: do harm to the environment, keep up with the trend, throw-away culture 翻译: Another drawback of is that chasing fashion will do harm to the environment. People who tend to buy the latest trends may renew their wardrobe from time to time and throw away the cloth which they think is out of fashion. This throw- away culture will has its environmental cost as the clothing can take decades to degrade and the hues and fabrics of clothes can contaminate soil.

超市的好处

(1) 大,货品多,便宜,售后服务好, 一站购物

词伙: one-stop shopping, after-sales service 翻译: The main advantage of the supermarket is that it can provide one-stop shopping, allowing people to buy different products at a low cost. Well-managed supermarkets can also provide good after-sales services.

小商店和集市的好处

(1) 方便,离人们近,节省时间

词伙: within walking distance 翻译: Small shops are normally within walking distance. It saves time.

(2) 手工的东西比较多,个性化的东西

词伙: hand-made products, custom-made products 翻译: Family-operated shops sell hand-made products and custom-made products that satisfy the needs of different buyers.

(3) 食品,蔬菜比较新鲜

词伙: fresh ingredients 翻译: People can also buy fresh ingredients in small fruit and vegetable shops.

(4) 小商店店主和客户交流,这本身是一种文化和生活方式

词伙: a way of life 翻译: It is a way of life for people to visit some famous local shops and interact with shop owners or attendants.


31 生活方式:衣服,制服,时装

(1) 专业形象

词伙: project a professional image 翻译: Uniforms can protect a professional image.

(2) 省钱

词伙: save money 翻译: It can save money as uniforms are relatively cheap compared with fashion.

(3) 避免各种各样的衣服吸引人们的工作,或者导致人们攀比

词伙: avoid distractions 翻译: If a company has a strict dress code and people wear similar clothes, it can avoid distractions and people would not compare themselves with colleagues in terms of what they wear.

(4) 某些功能衣服适合某些特殊行业,譬如说水管工,体现了行业的特点

词伙: unique requirements 翻译: Some uniforms are designed for specific occupations, such as plumbers, showing the unique requirements of these jobs.

(1) 人们不能突出个性

词伙: show individuality 翻译: Uniforms do not show people’s individuality.

(2) 过分注重规则,抑制人的创造力

词伙: conform to rules, stifle innovation 翻译: A company that requires employees to wear uniforms may create a culture of conformity. This can stifle innovation.

(3) 制服穿起来有时候不舒服

词伙: feel uncomfortable 翻译: Some people may feel uncomfortable when wearing uniforms, which are possibly not made of high quality material.

(1) 时装贵,是地位的象征

词伙: stylish outfits, a symbol of status 翻译: Stylish outfits are a symbol of status for they are normally expensive.

(2) 时装未必耐穿,只是满足人们的虚荣心

词伙: durable, out of vanity 翻译: Fashion may not be durable and people buy fashion out of vanity.

(1) 体现了文化、传统、一个地区的审美观

词伙: represent traditions, sense of beauty 翻译: Traditional costumes represent history and traditions, showing the sense of beauty of an ethnic minority or a country.

(1) 某些场合更加显得正式

词伙: wear formal clothes, for important occasions 翻译: Wearing formal clothes such as western suits can help people show respect for others on some important occasions.


32 环境类:能源的消耗和开发

(1) 人口增长,农业产量增加,能源消耗增加

词伙: population expansion, population growth, energy consumption 翻译: As a result of increased food yields, the world’s population has expanded rapidly, and energy consumption has accelerated.

(2) 人们追求好的生活,使用各种电器和交通工具

词伙: household equipment, different means of transport 翻译: People crave for a good standard of living, and they tend to use different household appliances and rely on different means of transport, including cars.

(3) 企业没有兴趣发展可替代资源

词伙: alternative, renewable energy sources 翻译: Companies in the energy sector have no interest in the development of renewable energy sources.

(4) 人们收入提高,支付得起电费,还有汽油费,不注意节约资源

词伙: earn higher income, energy bills, fuel costs, economise on fuel/ use energy in environmentally responsible ways. 翻译: People have money to pay electricity bills and cover fuel costs, so they no longer feel the need to use energy in environmentally responsible ways.

(1) 收入:对经济有负面影响。解释:能源价格上升,经营成本上升,很多公司可能入不敷出,最后会倒闭。解释:国家需要花很多钱去治理环境,处理一些污染问题,解决疾病,导致国家的财政赤字。

词伙: depletion of water, spread of diseases 翻译: The overreliance on energy can have a negative effect on the economy. Soaring energy prices can raise the cost of operation of companies, and some companies may go bankrupt since they fail to make ends meet. Another reason is that the country has to spend heavily in restoring the environment, cleaning up pollution and increasing health care provision. This can cause budget deficit of a country and hurt the economy.

(2) 健康:破坏健康。 解释:产生废气,可能导致呼吸道疾病。解释2:开采煤炭产生污水。 医疗开销增加。

词伙: energy prices soar, reduce the quality of life 翻译: The strong appetite for energy use can be harmful to health. Fumes created by burning fuels can increase the instances of respiratory diseases. Coal mining can cause water pollution, and many people may suffer from some water-related health conditions. People are more likely to visit doctors, and Medical costs are therefore higher.

(3) 生活标准:导致生活成本上升,生活标准下降。解释:能源有限的,替代资源供应也不是很稳定。价格上升,其他方面的钱比较少。

词伙: raw materials, the manufacturing cost is higher, damage the economy, 翻译: The growing demand for energy can lead to a higher cost of living, which can affect the quality of life. Some resources are finite, and alternative energy sources fail to secure a supply of energy. Energy bills increase, and people have less money for other aspects of their lives.

(4) 环境:破坏环境。原因1:消耗能源,使用化石能源产电,导致大量的废气。原因2:开采石油天然气和煤炭,破坏环境,产生一些污染物会导致污染。原因3:石油运输有可能漏油,污染海洋。

词伙: oil exploration, coal mining, damage the environment, cause environmental degradation, cause pollution 翻译: Energy consumption can cause damage to the environment. The first reason is that using fossil fuels to generate electricity can create emissions. Meanwhile, oil and natural gas exploration can damage the ecology and create some pollutants. Finally, oil spills can pollute the marine environment.

(1) 知识:提高意识。解释:人们要知道资源浪费的环境影响、经济的影响、对健康的危害,他们会采取一些行动,注意节能,减缓能源的消耗。

词伙: raise environmental awareness, save energy, reduce consumption/ a wasteful use of energy 翻译: Another solution is to raise people’s awareness of the urgency of tackling the energy crisis. People need to have a good understanding of environmental consequences, the economic costs and public health issues of overusing energy. They will thus take action to save energy, which can slow the depletion of energy.

(2) 立法:改变行为。解释:加税,一些能源税,能源的价格上升,人们可能就会减少能源的使用。解释2:惩罚,惩罚一些高排放的企业,公司愿意使用可替换资源,或者减少能源使用。

词伙: impose a tax, curb energy use 翻译: Another way is to enforce laws to change the behaviour of individuals and businesses alike. A heavier tax can be imposed on fuel, and this can lead to a higher fuel cost, thereby discouraging people from using energy excessively. Another regulatory change is to impose sanctions on/fine heavy polluters, and this can encourage companies to use clean energy sources or cut down on energy consumption.

(3) 科技:节能增产。解释1:发展一些科技减少能源的消耗。解释2:开发新能源。

词伙: technological innovations/advances, alternative energy 翻译: The shortage of energy can be tackled by achieving fuel economy and developing alternative energy sources. Technological innovations can be promoted to cut the use of energy. Renewable resources can also be developed to prevent our reliance on conventional fuels.

(1) 核能有核事故的危险,核垃圾很难处理

词伙: nuclear accidents, nuclear waste, radioactive waste 翻译: One drawback of nuclear energy is that nuclear accidents have dire consequences and nuclear waste cannot be disposed of safely.

(2) 大部分的替代资源,包括太阳能价格和成本很高,很难推广

词伙: solar power, promoted on a large scale/used commercially 翻译: The cost of converting solar power or other clean energy sources into electricity is normally costly, and it is difficult to promote these resources on a large scale.

(3) 风能的风塔会伤害鸟类,也会影响自然环境

词伙: windmills, hurt birds, reshape landscape, destroy the environment 翻译: Massive windmills can hurt birds and destroy the environment.

(4) 科技不够发达,经济开发的可能性不高

词伙: financially viable, financially feasible 翻译: Progress is limited in making the development of clean energy financially feasible.

(1) 环境:对环境带来很大的伤害。解释:冰川融化,海平面上升,海洋环境受影响,生活在极地的动物和鸟类生存受到威胁。解释2:旱灾或者水灾影响森林等,影响动植物的栖息地,和食物的来源。

词伙: melting iceberg, rising sea level, marine environment, coastal cities 翻译: The changing climate can also cause environmental degradation. Glacier melts faster and the sea level rises rapidly, changing the marine ecosystem. It also poses a threat to animals and birds traditionally dwelling at arctic areas. The increase in floods and droughts can destroy forest and affect animal habitat. The food sources for wildlife have also been affected by significant temperature variances.

(2) 经济:影响经济。解释1:极端天气会影响交通、工厂的运作。解释2:水灾和干旱等会影响农作物的生长。

词伙: extreme weather, crop failures 翻译: Global warming has a negative effect on the economy. Extreme weather conditions can affect traffic and the operation of factories. The revenue of businesses will drop. Meanwhile, floods and droughts can lead to crop failures. Therefore, the income of farmers will be affected as well.

(3)

词伙: 翻译:

(4) 健康:导致很多疾病。解释:高温会导致很多病毒滋生,人们会患上一些疾病。

词伙: diseases are carried by mosquitoes 翻译: Global warming/ the rising world temperature can cause numerous diseases. It can cause the spread of viruses, and people are likely to contract diseases, such as malaria.

(5) 生活成本:增加额外的支出。解释:生活的一些费用,譬如说暖气、空调等要增加。解释2:人们需要交多点税去承担各种设施和救援的费用,譬如说防洪堤,等。

词伙: electricity consumption 翻译: Climate change can also raise the cost of living for the public. They have to spend extra money on energy bills, since they need more air conditioning or heating when the weather is either extremely hot or unseasonably cold. In addition to this, they have to pay more tax to cover the expenditure on facilities and rescue efforts, such as flood defense, protect some cities from extreme weather events.

(1) 阻碍全球变暖意味着加税,企业利润下降,伤害经济,不花钱去使用环保科技

词伙: impose a tax, a drop in profit, damage the economy, green technology 翻译: To fight global warming, many countries choose to imposing a tax on businesses and households. This can normally lead to a drop in profit and damage the economy, reducing resources available for developing green technology.

(2) 为了适应全球变暖,开发科技

词伙: develop technology to adapt to a warmer planet 翻译: Companies may develop technology, such as building materials to keep homes cool, to adapt to a warmer planet.


33 环境类:水资源的使用

(1) 人口增加,需求增加

词伙: population growth, demand increase 翻译: Population growth has driven the demand for water.

(2) 人们不喜欢节水

词伙: efficient use of water 翻译: Many people do not feel the need to achieve the efficient use of water.

(3) 污水、海平面上升导致清洁用水减少

词伙: rising sea levels, clean water 翻译: Water pollution and rising sea levels have reduced the amount of clean water available.

(4) 水土流失导致河流淤泥增加

词伙: soil erosion, silt 翻译: Soil erosion has increased silt in rivers and contaminated water sources.

(1) 个人卫生,包括洗澡、刷牙等

词伙: personal hygiene, taking a shower, brush teeth 翻译: Water is important to personal hygiene. Without water, we cannot take a shower and brush teeth.

(2) 个人健康,包括食物的清洗等

词伙: wash food 翻译: Water is also important to our health. The access to tap water ensures we can wash food.

(1) 增加水费,抑制用水

词伙: increase water charges, curb water consumption 翻译: Increasing water charges, can curb water consumption.

(2) 使用节水措施(回收废水,收集雨水)

词伙: water saving, recycle water, collect rainwater 翻译: We should also adopt some water saving measures, such as equipment to recycle water and collect rainwater.


34 环境类:动物灭绝的原因,动物对社会的重要和保护措施, 动物的权益

(1) 环境 A 保护动物 B维持生态平衡 C 对环境好 背景:动物的生存对植物和森林的健康起到关键作用,他们吃水果,通过粪便撒播种子 解释(B-C)郁郁葱葱的森林是很重要的,因为树木可以保持土壤,防止因洪水造成的土壤侵蚀,土壤可以提供营养,以支持花草的生长,防止荒漠化 解释(B-c)同时,一些鱼类可以在溪流中吃草,保证河流的水自然流动。水体反过来又为自然动植物提供了高质量的水

词伙: Animal conservation, animal protection动物保护 ecological equilibrium生态平衡 hold seeds and prevent soil erosion保持种子和防止土壤侵蚀 heavy floods 严重的洪水 fight dissertisation 抵御土地荒漠化 high-quality water 高质量的的水 翻译: Animal conservation can help maintain ecological equilibrium. The survival of some animals plays a key role in the health of forest and vegetation, as they eat fruit and spread seeds through their manure. A lush forest is important as trees can hold soil and prevent soil erosion caused by heavy floods, and soil can provide nutrients to support the growth of flowers and grasses to fight desertisation. Meanwhile, Some fish can eat grasses in streams and ensure water of rivers flows naturally. Water bodies, in turn, provide high-quality water for natural flora and fauna. In other words, If all animals are well protected, the ecosystem can remain intact.

(2) 科技 A 保护动物 B 研究动物 C 有利于增加我们的知识和创新 解释(A-B)一些动物已经在地球上生活了数百万年,通过对这些动物的分析,可以了解物种是如何进化的,以及如何在地球景观和气候的剧烈变化中生存下来的 解释(B-C)一些重要的发明和发现,如雷达、防水材料和迷彩服的发明,被认为是归功于动物的研究,包括蝙蝠、鲨鱼和爬行类动物 解释(B-C)地球上所有物种的保存可以确保发明家能够继续从有趣的物种中汲取灵感

词伙: advance knowledge and technology 提升知识和科技 give insight into 洞察 water-proof material 防水物质 draw inspiration from intriguing species从有趣的物种中汲取灵感 翻译: Wildlife conservation can also help us advance knowledge and technology by analysing some species. Some animals have been on earth for millions of years, and the analysis of these animals can give insight into how species evolve and survive the dramatic changes in the landscape and climate of the planet. Some significant inventions and discoveries, such as the invention of radar, water-proof material and camouflage, have been credited to the research on animals, including bats, sharks and reptiles. The preservation of all species on earth can ensure that inventors can continue to draw inspiration from intriguing species.

(3) 科技 A 保护动物 B 督促我们想出保护环境的办法 C 有利于科技发展 解释(A-B)为了防止物种灭绝,我们应该考虑如何减少对动物栖息地的破坏和人类活动的环境成本 举例:我们需要发展更加有效的耕作方法,停止开荒砍树去耕种,利用清洁能源减缓全球变暖,创造更多可循环利用的材料去减少资源消耗

词伙: develop technology发展科技 protect the environment保护环境 reduce the damage to animal habitat减少动物栖息地的破坏 develop more productive farming methods发展更有效的耕种方法 翻译: Animal protection can also push us to developing technology for protecting the environment. To prevent species from dying out, we should consider how to reduce the damage to animal habitat and the environmental cost of human activity. For example, we need to develop more productive farming methods to halt land clearing for farming purposes, use clean energy sources to slow global warming, and create more recyclable material to cut the consumption of resources.

(4) 经济 A 保护动物 B 花费大量钱 C 给财政带来压力 解释(A-B)它可能涉及建立繁殖中心以恢复濒危物种的数量,并雇用工作人员来保护保护保护区以确保动物免受偷猎者的伤害 解释(B-C)这可能会消耗掉其他用于关键服务的资金,如教育和医疗保健

词伙: medicial treatment 药物治疗 increase the money on the animals converation增加动物保护的钱 guard conservation areas 保护保护区域 use up the money 把钱花光 protect animals from poachers保护动物免受到捕猎者的侵害 education and medical care教育和医疗 essential services 重要的服务 翻译: However, animal protection usually takes a large amount of money and sometimes puts the government under economic pressure. It may involve the building of breeding centres to restore the population of endangered species and the hiring of staff to guard conservation areas to protect animals from poachers. This may use up the money otherwise available for essential services, such as education and medical care.

动物好坏处:

(1) 文化和价值观 A 动物实验 B 滥用 C 道德上不好 解释(A-B)让动物遭受创伤在伦理上是错误的,尤其是当其目的是开发一些非医疗产品,如美容产品 解释(A-B)动物虐待在实验室里也很常见,在实验室里动物被饲养在恶劣的环境中。动物有时会因错误的原因受伤或死亡

词伙: subject animals to trauma 让动物受到伤痛 animal experimentations动物实验 non-medical products非医疗用品 beauty products美容产品 moral principles 道德原则 exploit living animals 利用活着的动物 self-interest 自己的利益 be kept in poor conditions 被关在恶劣的环境 翻译: Animal experimentation is sometimes challenged on grounds of moralty as there are many instances of animal abuse. It is ethically wrong to subject animals to trauma especially when the purpose is to develop some non-medical products such as beauty products. It is against moral principles to exploit living animals for our self-interest. Meanwhile, animal maltreatment is commonplace in labs, where animals are kept in poor conditions. Animals are hurt and killed sometimes for wrong reasons.

(2) 科技 A 动物实验 B 医学发展 C 帮助很多人 解释(A-B)对动物进行测试有助于科学家了解动物在生病时的反应以及药物是如何起作用的 解释(B-C)这有助于开发新的药物和治疗方法,可以治愈许多疾病和治疗患者 对比:几乎没有其他选择可以替代动物实验

词伙: animal experimentations 动物实验 animal testing 动物测试 medical discoveries医学发现 make a difference改变 cure diseases and treat patients治疗疾病和病人 alternatives可以替代的选择 animal-based tests 用动物做实验 翻译: The supporters of animal experimentation think that animal testing can lead to medical discoveries that save millions of lives. Doing tests on animals helps scientists understand how animals react when given an illness and how medicine makes a difference. This can help develop new drugs and procedures that can cure many diseases and treat patients. At the moment, there are few alternatives to animal-based tests.

动物园好坏处:

(1) A 动物园 B 失去动物的本性 C 涉及到动物权益问题 解释(A-B):动物被捕获并关在笼子里,但在它们的传统家园里,它们可以自由漫步并保持它们的自然行为特征,例如与同一物种的其他动物互动 解释(A-B):动物失去了觅食的自由,要么吃得太饱,要么饿得要死 解释(A-B):一些动物园还训练动物以娱乐游客。如果动物没有按照训练者的指示行事,就会被殴打或鞭打

词伙: morally wrong 道德上是错的 keep animals in zoos 把动物放在动物园 be captured and kept in the cages 被抓并保存在笼子里 maintain their natural behavioural traits 保持自然的行为特征 interact with other members 和其他成员互动 lose freedom to hunt for food 丢失了觅食的自由 entertain tourists 娱乐观众 animal welfare campaigners 动物权益人士 have no right to use animals for entertainment and profit 没有权利将动物用在娱乐和利润 翻译: Many people think that it is morally wrong to keep animals in zoos since this is against their instincts. Animals are captured and kept in the cages but in their traditional home areas, they can roam freely and maintain their natural behavioural traits, such as interacting with other members of the same species. Animals lose freedom to hunt for food and they are either overfed or starving. Additionally, some zoos train animals for the purpose of entertaining tourists. Animals are beaten or whipped if failing to behave as instructed by trainers. Animal welfare campaigners argue that we have no right to use animals for entertainment and profit.

(2) 环境 A 动物园 B 保护动物 C有利于生态平衡 解释(A-B)珍稀动物或濒危野生动物可以在动物园接受照料和治疗,在那里它们可以繁殖,而不会面临天敌或猎人的威胁 解释(A-B)动物园是一个保护中心,科学家在这里研究动物及其行为,以确定保护濒危物种免遭灭绝的最佳方式 解释(A-B)把动物留在动物园的另一个好处是它可以帮助人们提高动物保护意识。动物园之旅是有益的和有教育意义的,因为游客可以了解动物的生活方式以及使这些物种处于危险之中的因素 解释(A-B)接触动物,包括喂养动物,对孩子们来说是一种不可忘记的经历,提升大家去保护这些动物的兴趣

词伙: rare animals or endangered species 珍贵物种或者濒危物种 receive special cares and treatment 接受特别的照顾和治疗 face threats from predators or hunters 接受来自捕猎者或者猎人的威胁 rasie the awareness of animal conservation 提升动物保护的意识 protect threatened species from extinction 保护珍稀动物不让它们灭绝 keep animals in the zoos 把动物放在动物园里面 gain knowledge获得知识 an unforgettable experience for children 对孩子是一次难忘的经验 generate the interest ine 激发兴趣 keep those lovely creatures alive 让动物生存 翻译: Zoos are sometimes supported for the important role they play in preserving biodiversity. Rare animals or endangered wildlife can receive care and treatment in zoos, where they can reproduce without facing threats from predators or hunters. Zoos function as conservation centres where scientists study animals and their behaviours to identify the best way to protect threatened species from extinction. Another advantage of keeping animals in the zoos is that it can help people raise the awareness of animal conservation. Zoo trips are rewarding and educational, as visitors can gain knowledge about the living styles of animals and the factors putting these species at risk. The contact with animals, including feeding animals, is an unforgettable experience for children, generating the interest in keep these lovely creatures alive.

(3) 马戏团、动物园、实验室的动物、还有宠物经常被虐待,生活环境不好

词伙: lab animals, subject to maltreatment, poor living conditions 翻译: Lab animals are subject to maltreatment. Poor living conditions are also a problem.

(4) 人们对肉类的需求增加,家禽和牲畜在工厂里被残忍杀害

词伙: meat consumption, farm animals 翻译: Meat consumption has increased dramatically, and livestock as well as farm animals are killed in factory farms.

吃动物优缺点:

(1) 健康 A 吃肉 C 对身体好 解释(A-B):是蛋白质的主要来源,也是很多对健康重要的营养物质的来源 解释(A-B):人类进化习惯了吃肉,吃肉确保肌肉和骨骼的健康 解释(C的拓展):孩子不能健康成长,运动员和做体力劳动的人需要吃肉保持体力和能量

词伙: a source of protein 翻译: Eating meat is essential to health. Meat is a primary source of protein, calorie and some nutrients essential to our health, such as calcium. Human beings have evolved to adapt to meat consumption. Eating meat can ensure the health of muscles and bones. Without meat as part of our diet, we may suffer from malnutrition. Children may not grow healthily without meet as part of their meals. Some people such as athletes and manual workers need meat consumption to maintain the level of energy and stamina for performance.

(2) 传统和文化 A 吃肉 B 增加节日的快乐 C 让人们很开心 背景:以前很难吃到肉,人们喜欢假日以肉做菜去表示自己对节日的重视。 背景:准备肉菜去招待重要的客人 解释(A-B):肉逐步成为宴会的重要组成部分 结果(C的拓展):没有肉,大家不开心

词伙: time-honoured tradition, traditional celebrations 翻译: Eating meat can also increase the joy people can gain in celebrating some special festivals. Meat was difficult to come by in the past, so people cooked meat on special festivals to show the extent to which they attached importance to these festivals, especially those which have religious implications. They also prepared meat dishes to serve important guests . Some traditional meat dishes gradually formed an important part of feasts and banquets on special occasions, such as eating turkey for Thanksgiving. Without meat, people would experience a lower level of pleasure on these special days.

(3) 健康 A 吃肉 C 对身体不是很好 解释(A-B):吃肉会导致肥胖,胆固醇会增加等 解释(A-B):吃肉也会增加病毒传播的风险,譬如说禽流感 解释(A-B):肉类不好保鲜,坏了的话可能会导致中毒

词伙: 翻译: Meat consumption is also harmful to health. Eating meat can cause obesity and increase the intake of cholesterol- a trigger for heart diseases. The strong demand for meat can also drive the need for meat production and livestock farming, but poultry is sometimes the medium for spreading viruses such as bird flu. Finally, if not preserved well, meat can be spoiled and rotten meat can increase the instances of food poisoning.

(4) 价值观 A 吃肉 B 对动物很残忍 C 道德有争议 解释(A-B)杀戮动物 解释(A-B) 将家禽养在农场里,很残忍

词伙: 翻译: There are also ethical arguments against meat consumption. Killing animals is cruel, and animal welfare activists challenge the justifications for slaughtering animals for food, especially when there are alternatives to meat today. It is also inhumane to raise livestock on a large scale in farms. Animals are kept in small space to prevent energy loss to ensure they grow fast to meet consumption needs.

养宠物的原因:

(1) 人类的伙伴,消除寂寞

词伙: provide companionship, combat the sense of loneliness 翻译: animals can provide companionship to combat the sense of loneliness.

(2) 给小孩培养责任感,知道如何照顾小动物

词伙: foster a sense of responsibility 翻译: It can foster a sense of responsibility among children, as they learn how to take care of animals.


35 环境类:保护环境的方法

(1) 法律在保护环境方面可以发挥重要作用。 背景:在个人利益的驱使下,个人和公司有时会从事破坏环境的活动。 举例:开垦土地用于农业或住房开发。 解释:制止这种行为的最好办法是颁布法律,例如惩罚破坏森林的公民或公司。严厉的惩罚起到威慑作用。

词伙: preserve the environment, driven by self-interest, clear land, curb behaviour 翻译: Laws can play an important part in preserving the environment. Driven by self-interest, Individuals and companies are sometimes involved in environment-damaging activities, such as clearing land for farming or housing development. The best way to curb this kind of behaviour is to enact laws, such as punishing citizens or companies who are caught damaging forest. Harsh penalties serve as a deterrent.

(2) 价格:政府可以提供一些经济刺激。 解释:使用环保科技或者发展这些科技需要很多的投入,政府给与补贴是有帮助的。 举例:投资环保科技的公司给予激励, 给那些使用环保产品的人一些补贴。

词伙: financial incentive, eco-friendly technology, eco-labelled products 翻译: The government can provide some Financial incentives to promote eco-benign behaviour. Developing or adopting green technology can be costly, so government support is important. Some business-friendly policies such as a tax break can be provided to encourage companies to develop eco-friendly technology. People who purchase eco-labelled products can be given subsidies.

(3) 背景:许多人没有意识到他们的习惯对环境的影响 举例:个人可以选择环保的生活方式来减少燃料的使用和造成环境污染的废物。 举例:人们可以步行或骑车上学或上班,使用公共交通工具而不是私家车来减少碳排放。 举例:他们还可以重复使用购物袋和回收易拉罐和瓶子,以减少垃圾。 对比:如果人们不觉得有必要改变他们的生活方式,严格的法律和推广绿色技术不会有很大的不同。

词伙: public transport/ private cars/ carbon carbon emissions/ shopping bags 翻译: The environmental problems can also be mitigated by changing citizens’ attitudes and lifestyles. It is necessary to keep the public well-informed about eco-friendly lifestyle choices, when many of them are not aware of the environmental consequences of their habits. Individuals can select eco-friendly ways of life to reduce the use of fuels and the waste which causes environmental pollution. People can walk or cycle to school or work, use public transport instead of private cars to reduce carbon carbon emissions. They can also reuse shopping bags and recycle cans and bottles to reduce waste. If people do not feel obliged to change their lifestyles, strict laws and the promotion of green technology would not make a huge difference.

(4) 技术: 可以被看作是解决现代生活造成的环境问题的一种方法。 背景:我们的日常生活对环境产生了影响,无论我们是否努力减少能源的使用,在现代世界做到碳中和基本上是不可能的。 举例:使用电气设备需要消耗电力,而电力通常是由燃烧矿物燃料产生的。 解释:使用清洁能源,如风能和太阳能,可以支持我们的日常生活,而不会产生温室气体排放。这些技术进步可以平衡现代生活的需要和可持续性发展的目标。

词伙: clean energy/wind power/solar power/ renewable resources 翻译: Technology can be seen as a solution to environmental problems caused by modern life. Our daily life has an impact on the environment, whether or not we try to cut down on energy use, and it is basically impossible to be carbon-neutral in the modern world. For example, the use of electrical equipment involves consumption of electricity, which is normally generated by burning fossil fuels. Therefore, only green technology can deal with this problem. The use of clean energy sources such as wind power and solar power can support our daily lives without creating greenhouse gas emissions. These technological advances can balance the needs of modern life and the objective of sustainability.


36 媒体类:获得知识的途径

(1) 效率 A 看网络或者电视 B 信息更新 C 更有效率 解释:人们可以看突发新闻,现在的新闻组织都有网站和手机软件推送消息 解释:当一个故事爆发,人们可以在收音机听或者在电视上观看 对比:与之相反,书籍通常是过时的,因为编辑和出版都需要经过耗时的程序 人们不会在书上看到新闻

词伙: watch TV news 看电视新闻 listen to radio broadcasting 听收音机广播 keep up to date with 跟上 beaking news 突发新闻 deliver information to readers 推送消息给读者 time-consuming 耗时的 翻译: The Internet and watching TV news or listening to radio broadcasting allow people to keep up to date with what is happening. People can see breaking news online and all news organisations have websites and mobile apps to deliver information to readers. When a story breaks, people can also listen to it on radio or watch it on TV. In contrast, books are normally outdated, as editing and publishing of a book normally follow time-consuming procedures. People do not expect to read news on books.

(2) 效率 A 看网络或者电视 B 信息更加丰富 C 更加容易理解 解释:网站有视频、图片,还有关于一件新闻事件,一个主题或者一个理论的详细记述 解释:电视频道也有这类优点,视觉信息会更加直接而且能提供更多信息 对比:反之,书籍主要提供文字信息给识字能力很强的人

词伙: audio and visual information 视听信息 make sense 理解 detailed account 详细的记述 visual messages 视觉信息 literacy skills 识字能力 翻译: The Internet and TV programmes present both audio and visual information, so it is easier for people to make sense what has happened. Websites have videos, pictures as well as a detailed account of a news event, a subject or a theory. TV channels also have these advantages and visual messages are normally more straightforward and informative. In contrast, books predominantly provide information in text, and only attract people who have strong literacy skills.

(3) 知识 A 看网络或者电视 B 信息质量不一定很高 C 获得的知识不是很多 解释(A-B):网络的一个问题就是人们可以自由地发表他们的意见观点,但是有时候他们的想法并没有证据来支持 这就是为什么在学术界,网络不能作为一个可靠的信息来源 解释(A-B):电视节目一般都穿插了广告,甚至于教育节目都变得有娱乐性 严肃的读者喜欢阅读书籍,当他们想要加深对某个学科的理解

词伙: a source of knowledge 知识来源 learn a subject in depth 深入学习一门学科 post opinions and views 发表意见观点 a credible source of information 可靠的信息来源 educational programmes 教育节目 deepen understanding 加深理解 翻译: The Internet or TV programmes is however not a favourite source of knowledge for people who want to learn a subject in depth. One problem of the Internet is that people can post opinions and views freely and sometimes, their ideas are not supported by evidence. This is why the Internet is not accepted as a credible source of information in academic communities. TV shows are normally interrupted by advertisements, and even educational programmes intend to be entertaining. For these reasons, serious readers favour books whenever they intend to deepen their understanding of a subject in question.

(4) 环境 A 使用网络 B 减少浪费资源和污染 C 保护环境 解释(A-B):不用砍树 解释(A-B ): 不用油墨

词伙: 翻译: Using digital material rather than reading physical books can help preserve the environment as it can reduce the consumption of natural resources and cut pollution. As the production of print books decreases, the demand for wood pulp and the destruction of forest will decline.

(5) 生活方式 A 阅读书籍 C 更加享受阅读 解释(A-B):喜欢手里拿着书,喜欢书的味道 解释(A-B):喜欢在书页的边缘写感想,也喜欢画关键词和句子 解释(A-B):喜欢图书馆的气氛 对比:屏幕上看书会被网络其他的内容所吸引

词伙: 翻译: Reading books is sometimes favoured by those avid readers. They love holding books in hands, and the smell of new books they purchase. It is also easier to make notes on margins of print books as well as highlight key words and sentences. They tend to keep books which they enjoy reading, instead of electronic versions. Some of them like reading in libraries or cafes where the quiet atmosphere allows for deep reading. In contrast, reading on screen is less favourable as they can be distracted by films, videos and other kinds of content online.


37 媒体类:广告对我们生活和消费的影响

(1) 生活标准 A 广告夸大产品的功能 B 解决人的一些需求 C 卖产品: 背景:广告上采取的一个常用的手段就是夸大产品的功能,以及暗示产品符合顾客的喜好。 解释(A-B):他们对人们对金钱和健康的基本需求进行调查。 举例:比如一些公司卖产品着重其教育意义,一些人就会购买这些产品,因为害怕他们落后于人。 举例2:还有一些公司专注健康问题,比如为口腔问题设计的牙刷,运动设计的健身设备,还有提升空气质量的机器,杀菌的香皂。所有这些产品都没有广告推广的用处大,但是在有健康担忧的人们那里非常受欢迎。

词伙: sell products 卖产品 satisfy some needs of consumers 满足顾客的需求 give an exaggerated account of functions 夸大产品的功能描述 emphasise the educational benefits 强调教育好处 improve air quality 提升空气质量 health concerns 健康担忧 翻译: One common strategy adopted by advertisers to sell products is to give an exaggerated account of functions and suggest that these products can satisfy some needs of consumers. Advertising firms conduct research on the basic needs of people for money and health. Some companies, for example, promote their products by emphasising the educational benefits, and people buy these products, fearing that they may lag behind others if they are not knowledgeable enough. Similarly, there are a broad range of products designed for dealing with health issues, such as toothpaste for oral health, fitness equipment for work-outs, machines for improving air quality indoor, and soap for killing germs. All these products may not be as powerful as promoted by advertising, but they are popular with people who have health concerns.

(2) 社会关系 A 广告说这是时尚的东西 B 大家希望自己合群 C 购买 背景:人类是社会动物,他们融入社群会感到有安全感。 解释(A-B):一些广告商利用技巧宣传自己的产品非常时髦,或者发起针对目标顾客特点的营销活动。 如果人们看到这个广告符合他们的特征,他们可能就会买广告商品。 解释(B-C):他们觉得他们需要遵守组群的规则。否则他们和同组的人没有共同话题。 举例:一个高科技产品广告说他们的产品被大多数家庭主妇使用,女人很难抗拒诱惑不去买它。

词伙: a sense of security 安全感 fit into a group 融入组群 hi-tech gadget 高科技产品 resist the temptation 抵抗诱惑 翻译: Advertising also influences consumers by tapping into their need to belong. Humans are social animals, and derive a sense of security from fitting into a group,they think they belong to. Advertisers sometimes use statistics to show how popular a product is among some people, or launch campaigns featuring people who have the same characteristics as intended consumers. If viewers identify with the characters in TV commercials, they would possibly buy advertised products. They believe that it is a group norm, and something that they need to conform to. Otherwise, they do not have talking points with other members of the same group. For example, if advertising suggests that a hi-tech gadget is used by a majority of housewives, it is difficult for a woman to resist the temptation to buy it.

(3) 自我提升 A 广告使用明星代言 B 大家觉得自己可以提升 C 购买 背景:羡慕名人的人们可能会买和他们同样的产品,因为那些知名人士非常有魅力,身材很好也很聪明 举例:一些年轻顾客买体育明星代言的功能饮料,因为他们强烈认为喝这些饮料会提升他们在比赛和竞争中的体能和表现。 举例2:女生会买名人推广的:电视化妆品,配饰和衣服,她们认为穿戴这些产品可以让她们好看。

词伙: high-profile figures 高调的人 enhance their own physical strength and performance in…提高他们的体能和表现 energy drinks 功能饮料 improve appearance 变得好看 翻译: Another way to sway consumers to buy something is celebrity endorsement. People who admire celebrities may think purchasing the same products as those high-profile figures can become glamorous, physically fit and intelligent. Some young consumers, for instance, purchase energy drinks advocated by sports stars, as they strongly believe that these drinks can enhance their own physical strength and performance in games and competitions. Girls, by contrast, purchase cosmetics, accessories and outfits promoted by supermodels and TV personalities, believing that wearing all these products can improve appearance.

(4) 行为 A 广告利用大家的攀比心理 B 将某些产品打造成地位象征 C 购买 背景:人们将产品和自信连在一起,尤其在收入差距不断增大的国家里。 解释(A-B):如果他们能买奢侈品,他们感觉有一种满足感和骄傲。为了满足这些顾客的心理需求,广告产业会制造一些名牌,以高端市场为目标。 解释(B-C):如果人们觉得这些牌子是地位的标志,他们就会大量花费在这些产品上面。

词伙: promotstatus symbols 社会地位 self-esteem 自尊心 feel a sense of satisfaction and pride 有满足感和自豪感 afford some luxury brands 购买一些奢侈品 cater for the psychological needs 满足心理需求 create premium brands 创造优质产品 翻译: Advertising also taps into social comparison of people and build some brands as status symbols. People associate the possession of some products with self-esteem, especially in economies where the income gap is widening. They feel a sense of satisfaction and pride, if they can afford some luxury brands. To cater for the psychological needs of these consumers, the advertising industry has sought to create a number of premium brands which target the high end market. If people perceive these brands as a marker of status, they will spend lavishly on these items.

(5) 知识 A 广告提供大量的信息 B 让好的产品更加出众 C 购买 背景:广告通过提供给产品的信息(特征,产品和服务的优势),缩小买家和供货商的距离。 解释(A-B):顾客可以根据广告上提供的提示做出明确的决定。一些产品比竞争者的产品在质量、持久性还有其他一些标准表现更好。 解释(B-C):这就会有个良性循环:有好的产品的商家盈利能力强,能维持市场花费的支出。 因为市场维持了一个品牌的意识,顾客就会继续购买,为这些产品的提升提供钱。

词伙: shape consumer behaviour 形成用户行为 reliable, well-known brands 依赖的,知名品牌 make well-informed decisions 做出明确的决定 branded products 知名品牌产品 virtuous cycle 良性循环 brand awareness 品牌知名度 翻译: Advertising can also shape consumer behaviour by helping them choose reliable, well-known brands. Advertising bridges the gap between buyers and suppliers by providing information about the functions, features and advantages of some products and services. Consumers can make well-informed decisions with the tips provided by advertisers, and some branded products which outperform rivals in quality, durability and other standards will stand out over time. This can form a virtuous cycle: the manufacturer of a better product is normally more profitable and capable of sustaining the expenditure on marketing. As marketing maintains the awareness of a brand, consumers will continue to buy it and provide money required for the upgrading of this product.


38 媒体类:新闻的可靠性和新闻的作用

(1) 政治:A 新闻媒体是由政府或一些国家的政党控制的 B 会扭曲事实 C 新闻不可靠 解释(A-B):当局有时审查揭露政治丑闻或批评政府政策的新闻文章。 解释(A-B):有权势的政客可以通过撤回资金来影响新闻机构,因此新闻机构面临着压力,要求它们对这些政治人物进行正面报道。 解释(A-B): 在某些情况下,政府甚至可以关闭一些报纸或电视台,因为他们不遵守命令或不以政府所要求的方式去操纵观众。 结果:新闻是有偏见的,公众不能从媒体得到真相。

词伙: news media, political parties, news articles, political scandals, news outlets, political figures, manipulate the audience 翻译: Sometimes news is unreliable since news media is controlled by the government or by political parties in some countries. The authorities sometimes censor news articles which expose political scandals or criticise government policy. Powerful politicians can influence news organisations by increasing or withdrawing funding, so news outlets are under pressure to portray these political figures in a positive light. In some cases, the government can even shut down some newspapers or TV stations for not complying with orders or reporting news to manipulate the audience in the ways demanded by the government. As a result, the news is biased and the public cannot get the truth from the media.

(2) 经济:A 私人公司来经营媒体 B 这些公司的终极目标是利益最大化 C 新闻报导失实 背景: 公司为了盈利,非常在意市场的需求 解释(B-C):不惜制作假新闻,散步谣言,甚至是夸大事实以吸引更多的读者和观众以追求更高的收视率和销量。 这样,他们所提供的新闻报道不再客观。

词伙: economic profit, news agencies, market demands, fake news, spread rumours, give an exaggerated account, high ratings 翻译: Another reason why news is sometimes not credible is that in some countries news media relies on the sponsorship of private companies, whose ultimate target is to seek maximum economic profit. These news agencies are obedient to market demands, and more often than not, the news they select may create fake news, spread rumours or even giving an exaggerated account of a news event, to draw the attention of the readers and audiences and entertain them, in pursuit of high audience ratings and sales. As a result, the news reports provided by these news media companies are no longer reliable.

(3) 科技:A 网络媒体成为主流媒体之一 B 网络媒体没有得到很好的监管 C 新闻信息失实 背景:每个人都可以在网络媒体上传播信息,可能会扭曲事实的真相。网络监管者没有资源去检查每天网络上产生的数以千万计的新的帖子。 背景:很多人利用网络传播信息比较快的特点 举例: 一些不择手段的记者甚至编造故事,比如一些名人的婚外情,希望以此来吸引读者的注意力,追求名利。

词伙: source of information, digital news, spread information, distort facts, make up stories, extra-marital affairs, gain fame 翻译: Online news is not widely accepted as a reliable source of information since digital news is not well regulated. Everyone can spread information via social networking sites and Internet watchdogs do not have resources to check millions of new postings which are created on a daily basis. Some individuals or organisations also deliberately make use of network media which sometimes helps to spread news faster than print media. This provides the possibility of distorting the facts. For example, some unscrupulous journalists even make up stories, such as extra-marital affairs of some celebrities, in hopes of attracting readers’ attention and gaining fame.

(4) 新闻机构可能有政治色彩,有宣传作用

词伙: political propaganda, politically controlled 翻译: Some news organisations are politically controlled. The news stories they produce are possibly used as political propaganda.


39 媒体类:电视和电影的影响

(1) (知识)看新闻可以增加知识。背景:人生活很忙,很难每天去不同的地方了解世界。解释:新闻可以让人们与时俱进,知道世界大事,包括科技、经济、政治。结果:可以做更加合适的决定。

词伙: keep pace with times, technological advances, economic events, political affairs, make well-informed decisions 翻译: Reading news can expose people to knowledge. It is difficult for an average person to visit different places to learn about the world, as they live a busy life. Reading or watching news enables them to keep pace with times and get to know technological advances, economic events, political affairs and other current issues. With such knowledge, they are capable of making well-informed decisions.

(2) (知识)看新闻可能被误导。解释:可能因为政治压力或者商业利益,新闻故意扭曲事实或者捏造一些信息去误导读者。解释2:记者有自己的主观想法(由价值观、政治立场),有些时候在报道新闻有失偏颇。 结果:对世界了解不准确。

词伙: manipulate the public, twist facts, make up fake news, distort view, political pressure, give a balanced account, biased views, personal values, political opinions 翻译: News sometimes can manipulate the public. News media may twist facts or even make up fake news to distort the audience’s view of some issues, possibly because news organisations are under political pressure or do that for commercial interests. Another reason is that reporters sometimes are not able to give a balanced account of news events since they have biased views-affected by their personal values and political opinions. As a consequence, people may not gain correct information by reading news.

(3) (自我提高)看新闻提升批判性思维。解释:不同的报纸对同一事件不同的描述、解读和分析,甚至褒贬不一,让人们知道一个事情不同角度分析,结论可能不同。 解释:知道世界不同国家对同一个事情处理方法,让我们知道对一个东西的看法多样性。结果:人们在阅读信息的时候会带着批判的眼光,不会盲目下结论,思考问题更加深入。

词伙: critical thinking skills, contrasting views, arrive at different conclusions, think deeply, leap to a conclusion 翻译: Reading news can improve critical thinking skills. News outlets can describe, interpret and analyse the same news events in different ways, and show contrasting views; therefore, people will understand that they may arrive at different conclusions when seeing an issue from different perspectives. Meanwhile, by reading or watching news, people may realise that a problem can be tackled by individuals, organisations or countries in diverse ways, and they will understand the importance of comparing different solutions. This means that they are able to evaluate information critically and think deeply about the quality of information, instead of leaping to a conclusion.


40 媒体类: 电脑、因特网 和手机

(1) 知识 A 看电视或者看电影 B 增加知识 C 开拓视野 解释(A-B)电视节目和电影,尤其是那些在其他国家的制作的,给观众们展示了世界文化的多样性,展现在价值观,信仰,习俗和生活的方方面面 解释(A -B)一些纪录片,历史史诗电影和世界著名历史人物的电影,提供给观众有关于科技,历史事件,还有在历史上占有一席之地的人的相关信息

词伙: widen knowledge and broaden horizons 扩宽知识和眼界 the diversity of the world’s cultures 世界文化的多样性 world-famous figures 世界知名人物 have a place in history 在历史上有一席之位 provide viewers with information and technology 给观赏者提供知识和科技 翻译: The benefit of watching TV and going to the cinema is that people can widen knowledge and broaden horizons. TV programmes and films, especially those made in other countries, show the audience the diversity of the world’s cultures, which are shown in values, beliefs, customs and ways of life. Some documentaries, history epic films and films about world-famous figures are informative, providing viewers with information about technology, historical events as well as people who have a place in history. They may not have this kind of knowledge unless they like reading.

(2) 生活方式 A 看电视或者看电影 B 放松 C 休闲 解释(A-B)电视剧,喜剧电影可以帮助人们远离单调的日常生活。电影可以让他们大笑,有时候让他们感动到哭,让他们远离工作放松几小时 解释(A-B)看3D电影是个非凡的视觉体验,因为电影制作人使用了特效,电影院里面有大屏幕和扬声器。这给人们提供了一种解脱单调生活的方式

词伙: get away from the monotony of daily lives 远离无聊的生活 an exceptional visual experience 非凡的视觉体验 use special effect 用特效 a form of escapism 解脱单调生活的方式 翻译: Watching TV or movies is also a pastime which allows people to feel relaxed. TV drama, comedy films and action movies can help people get away from the monotony of daily lives. Films make them laugh and sometimes move them to tears, taking their minds off work for a couple of hours. Watching some 3D films is an exceptional visual experience as filmmakers use special effect and the cinema has big screens as well as loud speakers. This can offer people a form of escapism.

(3) 社会生活 A 看电视或者看电影 B 增加和家人朋友的交流 C 提升人际关系 背景:现在人们每天都生活很忙,花很多时间和人家做休闲活动是很不现实的,但是在家看电视可以帮助弥补逐渐变少的家庭时间 解释(A-B)人们可以和他们的家人享受一些电视节目,尤其是看肥皂剧,情景喜剧给家人带来欢乐。他们会感到很放松,当他们一起大笑的时候会感到亲近 解释(A-B)去电影院还是个很好的社交活动,一些大片会成为人们的谈资

词伙: benefit one’s family and social relationships 对一个人的家庭 和社会关系有好处 lead a busy life 导致了繁忙的生活 compensate for dwinding family time 弥补了家庭时间 watch soap operas and sitcoms看肥皂剧和情景喜剧 experience a sense of closeness 体验亲密感 blockbuster films 大片电影 talking points 话题 翻译: Watching films or TV can sometimes benefit one’s family life and social relationships. As people lead a busy life every day, it is less realistic to spend hours doing leisure activities with family, but watching TV at home can compensate for dwindling family time. People can enjoy some TV shows with their family, and watching soap operas and sitcoms, in particular, provides some amusement for family. They feel relaxed and experience a sense of closeness when laughing together. Going to the cinema with friends is a social activity, and some blockbuster films serve as talking points among people.

(4) 知识 A 看电影和电视 B 影响大家对世界的看法 C 影响行为 解释(A-B)一些人无法分清现实和他们在屏幕上面看到的故事 举例:一些青少年或许会模仿动作片的暴力行为,而不知道他们的行为的全部后果 举例2:有些人或许没有意识到他们看得关于历史人物的或者外国国家的电影,并不能反映全部的事实。这些电影会造成刻板印象

know the full consequences of their hehaviour知道他们行为的全部后果
historical figures 历史人物 create stereotypes创造刻板印象 翻译: TV programmes and films can sometimes affect people’s behaviour by shaping their views about the world. Some people fail to realise the differences between realities and stories they watch on screen. For example, some teenagers may copy the acts of violence of characters in action films without knowing the full consequences of their behaviour. Some people may sometimes not be aware that the films they watch about some historical figures or foreign countries do not reflects all facts. These films may create stereotypes.

out knowing the full consequences of their behaviour. Some people may sometimes not be aware that the films they watch about some historical figures or foreign countries do not reflects all facts. These films may create stereotypes.

(5) 学习 A 看太多电影 B 浪费人们的时间 C 影响工作和学习 解释(A-B)一些人看电视剧会入迷,因为他们对故事的结尾很感兴趣,会被情节所吸引,这就会浪费一些宝贵的时间,他们可以用这些时间做更多有意义的事情,比如阅读 解释(B-C)长时间地看屏幕会对视力有损害,使得他们工作或者学习效率低下。这尤其对青少年有害,这些青少年不够自律

词伙: waste time 浪费时间 interfere with work and studies干扰工作和学习 be addicted to doing sth沉迷于做某事 undermine one’s ability to work or study 削弱工作或者学习的能力 well-disciplined 自律 翻译: Binge watching will waste time and interfere with work and studies. Some people are addicted to watching some TV series, as they are curious about the ending of the story and attracted to plots. This can take away valuable time they can spend in more meaningful activities, such as reading. Long screen time can also impair vision and undermine one’s ability to work or study effectively. This is especially harmful for teenagers who are not well-disciplined.

(6) 社会能力 A看电视和电影 B 不和别人交流 C 影响交流能力 解释(A-B):小孩关注电视和电影,不和小伙伴交流,不社交 解释(A-B):也不看书,也会影响词汇量 解释(A-B):家人盯着电视,不注意交流 特定化:特别是现在大家可以手机看电影等

词伙: 翻译: Watching TV and films can undermine people’s social skills and affect children’s social development adversely. Children pay attention to films and TV programmes, instead of spending time socialising with their peers. Meanwhile, they hardly read books and cannot develop a vocabulary from a young age, since their favourite programmes, such as cartoon films, do not teach them a repertoire of new words. Finally, people gaze at the screen to watch their favourite TV shows, while ignoring the interactions with their family. These problems have become more serious than ever before since they can watch all these films and TV series now on the phone.

(1) 方便 A.网购更方便 B.人们在家购物 C.快递很快 背景:网络购物信息方便,网络有很多网络服商店和在线服务 解释(A-B):互联网给我们及时的购物信息,人们可以在家里买商品和服务 解释(B-C):而现在的快递一两天就可以到达

词伙: online shopping 网上购物 buying sonething in physical stores 在实体店买东西 give us instant access to shopping infornmation 让我们及时获得购物信息 buy goods and services 买商品和服务 place an order下订单 翻译: Online shopping is more convenient than buying something in physical stores. Internet gives us instant access to shopping information on almost all items we intend to buy so people can buy goods and services from the comfort of their homes. Online stores operate 24 hours a day, allowing people to place an order whenever they like. Besides, the delivery is very fast now, and it just takes one or two days to deliver parcels to buyers’ home.

(2) 生活质量 A. 网络购物 B.比较便宜 C.提高生活质量 背景:网店一般不需要租金,人工费,所以可以降低成本,价格也便宜 解释 (b-c)人们能在网上发现物有所值,有更多的可支配收入,提升生活的标准

词伙: bricks-and-mortar ones 砖块和石灰 (指实体的店铺) lower cost of operating 运营的低价 best value for money 性价比很高 have more disposable income有更多可支配的收入 improve the standard of living提高生活标准 翻译: A lower price is another benefit of online shopping. Online stores usually spend less on rent, overheads and wages than bricks-and-mortar ones, so shop owners can lower the cost of operating, thus offering products at a lower price. People can find the best value for money on the Internet and have more disposable income, which can improve the standard of living.

(3) 经济 A 网络商务 B 更多人创业 C 对经济有好处 解释(A-B)网店低起步成本会吸引更多年轻的企业家,他们用一些电子平台将商品和服务放在网上。他们可以在家工作,而不是租办公室。与此同时,他们不需要有大量的存货,因为他们不需要在商店里面展示所有的商品 解释(B-C)当小生意涌现,就能制造更多的工作和大众消费也会上升。这两项都有助于经济发展。

词伙: spur economic growth 刺激经济增长 set up an online business 开展网上生意 low star-up cost 低起步成本 attarct numerous young entreprenuers吸引很多年轻的企业家 put their prodcuts and services online 把他们的产业和服务放在网上 use more e-commence platforms 使用更多的电子平台 work from home 在家工作 rent an office 租一个办公室 have a big inventory 有大量的存货 display all merchanise in a shop在店铺展示所有的商品 spring up涌现 consumer spending 大众消费 benefit the economy 对经济有好处 翻译: The growing popularity of online shopping can spur economic growth as more people are encouraged to set up an online business. The low start-up cost can attract numerous young entrepreneurs, who can put their products and services online by using some e-commerce platforms. They can work from home, instead of renting an office. Meanwhile, they do not need to have a big inventory, as they do not have to display all merchanise in a shop. They can start buying products from suppliers when customers place an order. As small businesses spring up, more jobs are created and consumer spending increases. Both benefit the economy.

(4) 法律 A. 网上购物 B.买家抱怨产品 C.很多诉讼 解释(A-B):网上卖家熟练地运用各种软件,比如photoshop修图,提升产品的形象, 买家发现他们买的产品没有展现的好。 解释(A-B): 网上生意可能不及时提供换货,当人们不满意他们买的东西。 解释(A-B ): 网上零售商的售后服务表现的可能不好,比如维修保养

词伙: consumer right issues 消费者权利的问题 shop online 网上购物 online sellers 网上卖家 improve the image of their products 改善产品形象 provide refund or replacements 提供退款或替换 online retailers 网上零售商 after-sales services 售后服务 maintenance and repair 维修保养 翻译: The number of consumer right issues will increase dramatically as more people choose to shop online. Many online sellers are skilled in using software such as photoshop to improve the image of their products, but buyers complain that the products they purchase are not as good as shown online. Besides, online businesses may not provide refund or replacements promptly when consumers are not satisfied with what they buy. Finally, online retailers may not perform well in after-sales services, such as maintenance and repair.

(5) 法律 A网络购物 B 经济诈骗 C 造成损失 解释(A-B):人们在网络上交易,输入密码就可以用自己的账户,但是系统被黑客入侵,金融信息就会泄漏,钱被转走。 解释(A-B):在中国这些国家,电子支付发展很快,人们扫码就可以支付,如果罪犯盗取这个信息,就会丢钱。

词伙: conduct transactions 交易 enter pin numbers输入密码 the system is hacked系统被黑客入侵 money is transferred 钱被转走 e-payment services 电子支付 翻译: Using electronic devices or websites to buy products can also expose users to cyber crimes. They conduct transactions online and access their bank accounts by entering pin numbers due to its convenience and fast speed, but if the system is hacked, their financial information can be stolen by criminals and money is transferred without their consent. In some countries such as China, e-payment services have developed rapidly: with a scan of reader by tap-and-go card or just simply by entering password, people can make a payment immediately. If this kind of information is intercepted by criminals, they also risk losing money.

(6) 环境 A 网购 B 大量购物 C 环境有伤害 背景:互联网渗透在许多国家都增加了,意味着人们每天花很多时间上网。他们接触到网店的商业信息,包括折扣,礼物券,还有其他的销售手段。 解释(B-C)他们会买各种各样的产品,比如电子产品,会带来垃圾。 解释(B-C)更严重的是。当网上购物的产品被包装运输,对塑料和包装的需求会激增。这会加剧废物的管理问题

词伙: E-commence boom 电子商务热潮 be a threat to the environment 对环境有害 compulsive shopping 强制消费 internet penetration 互联网渗入 be exposed to 暴露于 commercial information 商业信息 online stores 网上商店 electronic devices 电子装置 create waste 制造废物 the demand for 有..的需求 compound the waste management problem 加剧废物管理的问题 翻译: The e-commerce boom is also a threat to the environment as it promotes compulsive shopping. Internet penetration has increased significantly in many countries, meaning that people spend hours surfing the Internet every day. They are exposed to commercial information of online stores, including discounts, gift vouches and other sales pitches. They may buy different products, such as electronic devices, which can create waste. Even worse, as products bought online are packaged for delivery, the demand for plastic and cupboard packaging will surge. This can compound the waste management problem.

(7) 社会文化 A 网购 B 很多实体店会消失 C 影响社区生活 背景:在某些当地的商店购物已经成为了一些社区生活文化的一部分,因为居民来这些商店购买一些家用产品。他们在购物中与售货员交流 解释(A-B)网络购物的爆炸性增长改变了这一局面。因为人们在舒适的家庭中购买,他们更不可能惠顾当地的商店

词伙: online shopping 网上购物 the sense of community社区感 physical stores 实体店 shut down 关闭 翻译: The fast growth of online shopping can undermine the sense of community as some physical stores will be shut down. Shopping in some local shops has been part of the fabric of some communities, as residents visit these shops to buy some household products. They talk to attendants during shopping trips. This has been changed by the explosive growth of online shopping. As people buy whatever they need in the comfort of their homes, they are less likely to patronise local stores.

(1) 知识 A.网络教育非常方便 B.随时随地听课 C.学生可以随时随地学习 背景:网络教育非常方便,可以随时随地参加远程课程,不需要参加一个传统的教育课程。 解释(A-B)他们可以选择对他们有用的网络资源,利用碎片化时间听课 解释(举例) 学生可以用电子图书馆找到学术期刊,如果他们在作业上有任何问题,他们可以找一些网站去找答案

词伙: E-learning 网上学习 take distance learning courses 参加远程学习课程 attend lessons in a traditional educational setting 在传统的教育行业参加课程 choose online resources 选择线上资源 journal articles 期刊文章 use search engines of some educational websites 用一些教育网站的搜索引擎 翻译: The first advantage of E-learning is its convenience. Students can take distance learning courses and study whatever and whenever they want. They do not need to attend lessons in a traditional educational setting. Besides,they can choose online resources which are useful for them. For example, they can find journal articles by using digital libraries, and if they have any question in their studies, they can use search engines of some educational websites to find answers.

(2) 生活质量 解释(A-B):网络课程可以被提前录好,然后一旦被放在网上可以被数万个学习者反复观看,有些宣传材料可以产生流量所以可以免费。 解释(A-B): 还有一些老师在家用电脑上课。他们在家里工作,所以开课的成本是可以忽略的,和实体公司相比。

词伙: attend online lessons 参加线上课程 traditional courses 传统课程 can be viewed repeatedly 可以被反复观看 self-employed teachers 独立的老师 work from home 在家工作 run a course 开课 manage a bricks-and-mortar company管理实体的公司 翻译: Another benefit of attending online lessons is that they are usually cheaper than traditional courses provided by those educational institutions. Online lessons are prerecorded and can be viewed repeatedly by millions of learners, once put online. Some of them are used basically as promotional material to generate traffic, so they are available for free. There are also some self-employed teachers teaching lessons on the Internet. They work from home, and the cost of running a course is negligible compared with managing a bricks-an-mortar company. This is why they are willing to charge a small amount of money for the course fee.

(3) 法律 A网络教育 B 可以不受地域限制, 上其他城市名师的课 C 减少资源不对称的问题 背景:因为学习资源在每个地域都不一样,比如在一些偏远城市无法吸引一些优质的有经验的老师,由于经济发展缓慢和不好的生活条件 解释(B-C)这个问题可以被解决,只需要上网的地方就能听网课,解决了资源不对称的问题

词伙: distance learning 远程学习 address educational inequality 解决教育不平等 renowed teachers 知名老师 have access to 有权限… the avaliability of learning resources 教育资源的可获得性 remote villages 遥远的山村 attarct well-qualified and experienced instructors 吸引合格的有经验的老师 slow economic growth 缓慢的经济增长 poor living conditions 不好的生活条件 have access to the internet 可以上网 翻译: Distance learning can also address educational inequality as people can attend lessons of renowned teachers of other cities on the Internet and have access to the same learning opportunities. The availability of learning resources differs from region to region, and some areas, such as remote villages, fail to attract well-qualified and experienced instructors due to slow economic growth and poor living conditions. This problem can be tackled if students of these areas have access to the Internet.

(4) 知识 A 网络教育 B 老师缺乏监督 C 效果不好 背景:老师在上网课可能不能看到学生的反应,除非有视频聊天功能。 解释(A-B):这样的话,他们可能会被游戏,电影打扰 解释(B-C)如果学生不能理解课堂的内容,他们考试会很难考过

词伙: learning outcomes学习成果 concentrate on 关注 fail the exam 考试不通过 oberserve the responeses of students 观察学生 use the video chating fuction用视频聊天功能 understand class content理解课堂内容 翻译: The main disadvantage of e-learning is that learning outcomes may be limited if students cannot concentrate on lessons without supervision of teachers. Teachers during an online lesson may not be able to observe the responses of students, unless they use the video chatting function. For this reason, they are not able to intervene, even when students are distracted, for example, by a film or game online. If students are not able to understand class content, they will fail the exam.

(5) A.网络教育不完整 B. 学生和老师交流有限 C.学生得到传统教育的好处 背景:网络课程不像传统学校一样有那么多功能 解释(A-B)远程教育包括使用电子交流方式去传授知识,学生和老师交流有限 举例:他们不能参加不同的班级活动,学习交流技巧,或者不能通过学习校规来分辨好坏行为

词伙: online lessons 网络课程 a broad range of functions 有很多功能 the use of electronic means of communication 使用电子交流功能 impart knowledge to students 传授知识给学生 education system 教育系统 learn communication skills 学习交流的技巧 engage in different classroom activites 参加不同的课堂的活动 the distinction between good and bad behaviour 好和不好的差别 翻译: Another disadvantage of online lessons is that they fail to perform a broad range of functions as traditional school does. Distance learning involves the use of electronic means of communication to impart knowledge to students, and students have limited interactions with instructors and classmates. They are not able to derive other benefits from the education system as students of traditional schools do. For example, they may not learn communication skills by engaging in different classroom activities, or the distinction between good and bad behaviour by following school rules.

(6) 健康 A. 上网课 B 用电脑和手机 C 带来健康问题 解释(B-C)人们长期盯着电脑屏幕会近视 解释(B-C)会加剧肥胖的流行,因为它鼓励我们不运动,待在家里而不是去学校

词伙: cause health problems 带来健康问题 stare at computer screen for a long time 盯着电脑屏幕 suffer from nearsightedness 近视 exacerbate the obesity epidemic 加剧肥胖的流行 lead an active life 过积极的生活 stay at home 待在家里 go to school 去学校 翻译: Using computers or mobile phones to take lessons can also cause health problems. People who stare at computer screen for a long time might suffer from nearsightedness. Meanwhile, it may also exacerbate the obesity epidemic, as it encourages people to lead an inactive life, staying at home, rather than going to school.

(1) A.手机和电脑 C 使得人们的关系变得疏离 背景:因为人们常常会关注手机和电脑,而不是面对面的与人交流 举例:家长下班玩手机不管孩子,孩子也沉迷玩游戏,缺少交流,这样大家感觉很疏远

词伙: hurt social relationships伤害社会关系 face-to-face communication面对面交流 care for the children关心孩子 indulge in palying computer games 电脑游戏玩上瘾 treat their parents with respect尊重父母 a lack of interaction缺乏互动 experience a sense of isolation感到疏离 翻译: The reliance on computers and cellphones can hurt social relationships. People focus on their laptops and mobile phones rather than face-to-face communication. For example, adults concentrate on checking emails and writing reports on the laptop without caring for their children, while children indulge in playing games and do not treat their parents with respect . Due to a lack of interaction, they may experience a sense of isolation at home.

(2) 家庭和朋友 A 使用手机 B 交流更加方便 C 关系的维护 背景:人们可以用手机和电脑随时随地交流 解释(A-B)即使他们住在另一个城市和 国家,他们可以用视频聊天功能看到对方。地理位置无法破坏他们的关系

词伙: maintain the relationship 维护关系 communicate with their friends 和朋友交流 use smartphones and computers用手机和电脑 use video chatting programmes用视频聊天功能 geograhic locations地理位置 damage relationships损害关系 翻译: Electronic devices can help maintain the relationship between families and friends. People can communicate with their friends or family by using smartphones and computers anytime and anywhere. Even though they live in different cities or even countries, they can see each other by using video chatting programmes. Geographic locations would not damage their relationships.

(3) 朋友 A 使用手机和电脑 B 社交软件交到朋友 C 朋友圈更大 解释(A-B):人们可以和互联网用户交流,留下评论或者创造好自己的主页 解释(A-B):他们可以加入群聊,找志趣相投的朋友 解释(B-C)虽然他们不能再现实生活中见面,但是他们成功地建立来更多联系

词伙: communication technology交流科技 make new friends交新朋友 use some social networking apps and websites用社交网络的应用和网络 leave comments on posts or create their own profiles在帖子上留下评论和创造个人主页 join some online discussion groups 参加到网上群聊 common interests 共同爱好 翻译: It is sometimes argued that communication technology can help people make new friends more easily by using some social networking apps and websites. People can talke to other Internet users easily on social media websites by leaving comments on posts or creating their own profiles. They can also join some online discussion groups and find people who have common interests. They may not meet each other in real life, but they have successfully developed more connections.

(1) 能力提升 A手机视频和语音聊天 B 增加交流 C提高表达能力 背景:交流变得容易和简单,使用语音、email、视频聊天 解释(B-C)人们更多机会去使用语言在不同语境下表达自己的看法,也可以从别人那里的语言使用得到一些启发 因此提高表达能力

词伙: improve people’s communicative skills 提高表达能力 draw inspiration 汲取灵感 sharpen their language skills 提高语言技能 翻译: Electronic devices such as phones and computers can help improve people’s communicative skills. Technology has made interactions easier and more frequent as people can use voice messages, emails and video chatting whenever they like. They are able to use language to communicate their ideas in different contexts and to draw inspiration from the language use of other communicators, thereby sharpening their language skills.

(2) 能力提升 A 用手机应用 B不断写作 C提高写作能力 解释(A-B)许多人开始更多地发微博和在朋友圈上发言, 运用文字记录自己的生活 解释(A-B)并且有些人开始运用邮件和同事,上司沟通 解释(B-C):提高人们处理正式信函的能力,并且有创意文字

词伙: improve people’s writing skills提高写作能力 keep a record of their personal lives记录个人生活 exchange messages 交流信息 produce creative writing 创意写作 handle formal correspondence处理正式信函 翻译: Additionally, phones and computers also improve people’s writing skills. Mobile phone apps encourage them to write blogs or post their views on social networking apps to keep a record of their personal lives. Meanwhile, they also tend to write emails to exchange messages with colleagues and supervisors. These communication practices improve their ability to handle formal correspondence and produce creative writing.

(3) A. 使用手机电脑 B. 使用各种语言工具 C.写作能力下降 解释(B-C):表情包越来越被大多数人所使用,大家对于使用单词和句子去表达能力下降 解释(B-C):电子通讯手段让我们交流速度加快,我们很快纠错,我们对错误的容忍度会更高 解释(B-C):很多自动拼写和自动纠错功能,人们会依赖它,缺乏自己写出无错句子的能力

词伙: undermine users’ writing skills写作能力下降 increase the efficiency of communication提高交流效率 express their feelings and convey ideas传达想法和感受 written communication 书面交流 develop or maintain the ability to write error-free sentences提高或者保持写没有错误的句子的能力 翻译: The use of electronic devices might undermine users’ writing skills, although it can increase the efficiency of communication. Emoji and emoticons are increasingly used by people, so they find it difficult to express their feelings and convey ideas by language. Electronic means of communication allow people to communicate swiftly and correct mistakes immediately; for this reason, they are more tolerant of mistakes in written communication. Finally, they rely heavily on the auto-spelling and auto-checking functions of these communication technologies, and fail to develop or maintain the ability to write error-free sentences.

(4) 社会关系 A使用电脑 B不面对面交流 C.影响交流能力 背景:面对面的交流需要不断练习。 解释(A-B):喜欢网络交流或者手机交流,很少见面。 解释(B-C):很多人就不够自信 举例:不知道怎么开始聊天,不知道看对方是不是喜欢这个话题,不知道怎么让交流更加有趣,也不知道如何交流让别人更加舒服

词伙: have an adverse effect on 有不好的影响 deal with face-to-face meetings处理面对面的会议 interpret the facial expressions or body langauge理解面部和身体语言 start a conversation 开始对话 翻译: New communication technology can have an adverse effect on our face-to-face communication skills because it can make us less sociable. The development of communication skills requires practice, and people are less willing to talk to each other in person, as they can communicate online or via the phone. The consequence is that they are not confident in dealing with face-to-face meetings, for example, how to start a conversation and how to interpret the facial expressions or body language to identify whether another person likes this topic or not. It is also difficult for them to keep the talk engaging and use words which make others comfortable.

(5) 能力提升 A 用沟通工具沟通 B改变交流习惯 C 影响阅读能力 解释(A-B)人们习惯于短句、病句去交流,在意效率 解释(A-B)网络和手机让我们习惯了不断接受到新的信息,我们的注意力很难集中,不再有耐心去看长的文章 解释(B-C):词汇量不大,理解不了长句子

词伙: degrade our reading skills降低阅读技能 grammatically incorrect sentences语法错误句 show patience in有耐心 concentrate their attention on 专注 show patience in 有耐心 comprehend complex sentences effectively 迅速理解复杂句 communication tools沟通工具 翻译: The development in communication tools can also degrade our reading skills. We are used to communicating by using short or even grammatically incorrect sentences because we are encouraged to save time in communication. People who use smartphones and the Internet on a daily basis are constantly stimulated by new information, so it is difficult to concentrate their attention on or show patience in reading long articles. They may not be able to comprehend complex sentences effectively and develop a huge vocabulary.


41 全球化:投资和援助

(1) 钱:国际投资可以帮助发展中国家繁荣发展。 背景:贫穷在许多发展中国家是一个长期存在的问题, 解释1:跨国企业通常是带着资本来的。他们可能会投资当地公司,给这些公司发展资金。 解释2: 一些跨国企业也可以设立子公司,通过增加税收促进当地社区的发展。

词伙: persistent problem, run subsidiaries, increase tax revenue 翻译: International investment can help developing countries thrive. Poverty is a persistent problem in many developing countries, and multinational enterprises normally arrive with capital. They may invest in local firms and give these companies cash for development. Some multinational businesses may also run subsidiaries, which may contribute to the development of local communities by increasing tax revenue.

(2) 生活标准:A 国际投资 B 提供就业机会 C 提高当地人的生活水平 (A-B) 跨国公司可能是世界各地不同行业的市场领导者,它们在经济上有能力在第三世界国家雇用成千上万的工人,以满足世界各地对其产品的需求。这些工作对于那些本地企业很少有国际影响力的社区来说非常重要 (B-C) 当地人有了更多的就业机会于是就有了更多赚钱提高生活水平的机会。

词伙: job opportunities, market leaders, financially capable, earn money 翻译: The large scale foreign investment provides a considerable number of job opportunities, which can improve the living standard of people of developing countries. Multinational enterprises may be market leaders of different industries around the world, and they are financially capable of hiring tens of thousands of workers in third-world countries to satisfy the huge demand for their products worldwide. These jobs are important for communities where there are few local businesses having international presence. More locals in the developing countries can earn money to improve their living standard.

(3) 知识: 外国投资还可以促进世界各地的知识和技术转让。 背景:发展中国家没有资金、人才库和创新系统,这可能是长期贫穷的结果。跨国企业通常带来技术,包括先进的机器、先进的管理技能和最先进的系统。 解释:当他们进入一个新的市场时,他们可以为当地人提供员工培训,并向这些国家的工人传授技能。 解释2:他们还在当地招聘经理,这样这些国家的人才也可以学到现代管理技能的知识。 结果:这可以帮助发展中国家赶上发达经济体。

词伙: transfer of knowledge, talent pool, sophisticated machines, management skills, staff training, advanced economies 翻译: Foreign investment can also facilitate the transfer of knowledge and technology around the world. Developing countries do not have funding, the talent pool and systems for innovations, possibly as a result of persistent poverty, but Multinational enterprises normally arrive with technology, including sophisticated machines, advanced management skills and state-of-the-art systems. When they enter a new market, they may provide locals with staff training and impart skills to workers of these countries. They also recruit managers locally, so talented people in these countries can acquire knowledge of modern management techniques as well. This can help developing countries catch up with advanced economies.

(4) 经济上:国际投资可能对发展中国家的经济发展产生负面影响。 背景:跨国公司在资金、管理技能和技术上都比本土竞争对手有优势。 解释:一些外国公司进入发展中国家可能会导致一些公司倒闭。 结果:随着国内公司破产,这些国家可能会依赖外国公司。大型国际企业的主导地位意味着它们可以任意定价。 结果2:更糟糕的是,如果外国公司从这些国家撤出投资,当地经济可能会崩溃。

词伙: foreign firms, go bankrupt, set prices, withdraw investment 翻译: International investment may have a negative impact on the economic development of developing countries. Multinational companies have advantages over local competitors in terms of capital, managerial skills and technology. The arrival of some foreign firms in developing countries may cause the shutdown of some companies. These countries may rely on foreign firms as domestic companies go bankrupt. The dominance of large international businesses means that they can set prices arbitrarily. Even worse, if foreign companies withdraw investment from these countries, the local economy can collapse.

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(1) 经济:促进两个国家的经济发展。解释: 经济援助、技术的支持和投资基础设施,贫穷国家可以发展经济。 解释:这些国家富裕,捐献国和这些国家有更多的经济往来,提高收入。

词伙: economic growth, financial aid/support/assistance/help/backing, technological support/transfer of technology, investment in infrastructure, develop/grow the economy, donor countries, economic ties/ relations 翻译: Giving aid can benefit the economic development of both donor countries and recipient nations. Financial aid, technological support and investment in infrastructure can help underdeveloped countries to grow the economy, as they can open factories to produce products and have ports, airports and roads to transport goods to different places. The economic prosperity of these poor countries can eventually drive the economic growth of rich nations as well, if they have strong economic ties.

(2) 健康。防止疾病的蔓延。 解释:很多国家很穷,没有基础医疗设施,疾病很容易蔓延。解释:全球化,人很容易去不同的地方,疾病会影响全世界。解释:提供医药、疫苗,提供一些医疗人员,有助于控制疾病,减少死亡率。

词伙: the spread of diseases. medical facilities, contain diseases, in a globalised world, medicine and medical aid, vaccines, medical staff, control/manage diseases/ keep … in check, reduce deaths/death toll 翻译: The provision of aid is also beneficial to well-being of citizens of all countries involved, as it can prevent the spread of some diseases. Some countries are extremely poor and short of medical facilities to contain some contagious diseases. Another problem is that in a globalised world, people can travel to different places easily, so one medical condition can affect the whole world easily. The supply of medicine and vaccines, and the work of medical staff of economically developed countries, can help manage some diseases and reduce the death toll.

(3) 生活标准:生活很贫困。解释:贫穷国家过分依赖援助,自己没有动力去发展经济,一旦没有了援助,这些国家会遇到很多的经济问题。解释:贫困国家的政治系统缺乏透明度,钱被贪污了,真正需要的人用不到。

词伙: incentive, lack transparency/ governance/ open political system, corrupt officials, misuse/embezzle 翻译: One disadvantage of delivering aid to impoverished countries is that it does not tackle poverty. These countries are over-reliant on/depend heavily on foreign aid and do not have any incentive to grow the economy. Without financial assistance, these countries may experience economic hardships. Meanwhile, they do not have an open political system and money provided by international charities can be misused. Aid fails to reach people in need.

(1) 解决环境问题。 背景:国家没有足够的资源和技术解决。 解释1:国家可以分享技术和经验 解释2 :可以制定协议,确保每个国家都投入到环境保护去。 解释3:跨国公司在发展中国家开厂,可能有利于环保技术的传播。

词伙: share know-how and relevant experience/ green technology/ international conferences/ exchange information/ preserve the environment/ environmentally friendly technology 翻译: Environmental issues can be tackled by international collaboration since countries can make a concerted effort to protect the environment, possibly by sharing knowledge and resources. As countries agree on stronger alliances, companies which specialise in the development of green technology can export their practices to different countries, and governments can hold international conferences to exchange information about how to preserve the environment. Meanwhile, they can enter some international agreements to ensure that all member states are committed to environmental protection efforts.

(2) 促进经济的发展. 解释1:开办合资企业,开拓国际市场增加利润。解释2:减少贸易壁垒,产品远销其他国家,增加利润。解释3:国际间企业合作,发挥各自的优势,让产品和服务更有竞争力,利润更高。

词伙: economic ties/ joint ventures/ local business partners/ foreign firms/ target market/remove trade barriers/enter countries/multinational companies/ competitive advantages/ profit-making capacity. 翻译: Strong economic ties between countries allows for higher levels of cooperation among companies, which can possibly boost the global economy. By establishing some joint ventures with local business partners, foreign firms can enter different markets easily because they can gain more information from the local people and have a better understanding of the target market. They can earn more revenue. In addition, removing trade barriers means that products and services can enter different countries to make more profits. Finally, These multinational companies have many competitive advantages in their products and serrvices, and business partnerships can combine strengths of different companies and increase their profit-making capacity.

(3) 破坏环境。解释1: 国际企业在发展中国家开设工厂,利用当地的环境法律比较松的漏洞,然后开采资源,不注意污染的处理。 解释2: 国际贸易导致对各种产品运输产生更高的需求,排放尾气

词伙: loopholes of laws, exploitation of resources, deal with pollution, international trade 翻译: Some environmental issues may arise from economic globalisation. Foreign companies may shift their manufacturing base to underdeveloped countries and take advantage of loopholes of local environmental laws to exploit natural resources and take no action to deal with pollution. International trade also increases the need for transportation of products across the world, which can cause a sharp increase in emissions.


42 全球化:学习外语

(1) A 找到资料 B 不断学习 C 提升 解释(A-B):书本。其中一个学外语的方式就是利用我们可以找到的资源。有很多关于学习外语的书,比如语法和词汇。阅读这些书籍有助于学生学习使用目标语言 解释(A-B):网络材料对学习语言也很重要,学习者可以参加一些外语的课程,读外国人写的书,看外国电影或者电视节目 解释(A-B):网课,网络交流工具或者电子学习平台可以帮助人们和外国人交流

词伙: make the most materials 充分利用资源 get familiar with 熟悉.. the tareget language目标语言 online resources网上资源 language acqusition 语言习得 attend foreign-language lessons 参加外语课程 read articles 阅读文章 watch foreign-made films or TV shows 看外国制作电影的或者电视节目 talk to native speakers 和说母语的人聊天 use online communication tools or e-learning platforms运用网络交流工具或者网上学习平台 翻译: One way to learn a foreign language is to make the most of materials we can find. There are books about foreign languages, such as grammar rules and vocabulary. Reading these books can help learners get familiar with how to use the target language. Online resources are also essential to language acquisition, as learners can attend foreign-language lessons, read articles written by foreign authors and watch foreign-made films or TV shows. In the Internet age, people can also talk to native speakers by using some online communication tools or e-learning platforms.

(2) 文化传统 A好的语言环境 B 学以致用 C 提升 解释(A-B):在学习目标语言的国家生活 和学习,和当地人交流,提升语言熟练度 解释(B-C):人们会发现生活用语和书本上学习的东西可能不大一样 解释(B-C):他们能够理解如何正确和自然地使用语言,对某些单词的理解更深 解释(B-C):他们对文化有更好的了解,这能影响交流的话题的习俗和禁忌

词伙: interact with locals和本地人交流 have a deep understanding of 有更深的理解 affect the conventions in communication and taboo subjects in conversations 影响交流的习俗和话题里面的禁忌 翻译: It is also important to use a foreign language in a good language environment. People can go to countries where the target language is spoken, and develop proficiency in the foreign language by integrating with locals. One benefit of taking this approach is that learners may find the differences between textbooks and the language usage in real life. They may have a deep understanding of how to use some words correctly and naturally. They also learn about the culture of the host country, which can affect the conventions in communication and taboo subjects in conversations.

(3) A 勤奋 B 不断练习 C 提升 解释(A-B)学习是个艰辛的过程,只有人们花时间每天学习,最终才能掌握它 举例:如果没有每天在日常生活中用词是很难扩大词汇量的。他们可以跟同学练习或者直接练习

词伙: bear in mind 牢记于心 expand their vocabulary扩大词汇量 in day-to-day communication在每日的交流中 翻译: Whatever material people use, they should bear in mind that practice makes perfect. Language learning is an arduous process, and only people who devote time to learning it every day can eventually master it. For instance, it is not easy to expand their vocabulary without using the words they learn in day-to-day communication. They can practise either by talking to their peers or by themselves.

(1) 经济 A 国际语言 B 促进国际贸易 C 经济发展 解释(A-B)如果一个语言被其他国家的人们广泛地接受和使用,他们可以和对方有效地沟通 解释(B-C)这为贸易会议和谈判铺路,通常导致交易和合作关系。人们可以一起工作可以探讨商业机会,不分国籍

词伙: promote international trade 促进国际贸易 boost the world’s economy 促进世界经济 be widely used 被广泛使用 pave way for business meetings and negotiations为商业会议和谈判铺路 contractual relationships合作关系 explore business opportunities探索商机 翻译: One benefit of having an international language is that it can promote international trade and boost the world’s economy. If a language is widely accepted and used by people from different countries, they can talk to each other more efficiently. This paves the way for business meetings and negotiations, which normally lead to deals and contractual relationships. People can work together to explore business opportunities regardless of nationality.

(2) 科技发展 A 国际语言 B 在一起合作、交流 C 促进科技发展 解释(A-B)使用国际认可的语言能够促进科技发展,因为学者,工程师和科学家能够一起合作解决问题 解释(A-B)他们能够用一个语言交流观点,阅读用相同语言(比如英语)写的报告或者文章 解释(A-B)这可以确保他们共享相同的知识,有效地划分工作,并就如何执行项目达成一致可以针对特定主题或问题组建更多由不同国家成员组成的国际团队 解释(B-C)这可以加速技术的发展,科学家们可以获得比在自己国家的孤立工作中所取得的成就还要多

词伙: an internationally-recognised language 一个国际认可的语言 promotes technological progress 促进科技进步 share the same knowledge 分享相同的知识 reach an agreement about… 就…达成协议 speed up technological development 加快技术进步… 翻译: Having an internationally-recognised language also promotes technological progress as scholars, engineers and scientists can collaborate to tackle some problems. They can exchange ideas easily with a single language and read reports or articles written in the same language, such as English. This can ensure that they share the same knowledge, divide work efficiently, and reach an agreement about what to do to undertake a project. More international teams which consist of members from different countries can be formed for specific subjects or issues. This can speed up technological development, and scientists can achieve more than they do when working in isolation in their own countries.

(3) 文化传统 A 国际语言 B 小语种消失 C 文化多样性减少 解释(A-B)英语等一些国际语言的主导地位会鼓励一些年轻人放弃他们的母语 解释(A-B)他们学习英语以获得更多进入大学和找到工作的机会,因为英语在工作环境和学术环境中被广泛使用 解释(B-C)想到一些不太被说的语言会消失,一些生活方式也会消失,就感到令人沮丧。我们将看到一些能使世界变得有趣的文化的消失

词伙: threaten some minority languages 威胁小众语言 reduce cultural diversity 减少文化 多样性 gain more opportunities to 获得更多的机会 loss of some cultures 失去一些文化 翻译: One risk of having a global language is that it can threaten some minority languages and reduce cultural diversity. The dominance of some international languages like English can encourage young people in some communities to give up their native language. They learn English to gain more opportunities to enter college and find work, as English is widely used in work contexts and academic settings. It is upsetting to think that some less spoken languages will disappear, so will some ways of life. We will see the loss of some cultures which can make the world interesting.

(1) 不那么害羞,敢于练习,比较容易掌握

词伙: not limited by self-consciousness , pick up a language 翻译: Children are not limited by self-consciousness . They are more willing to practice. It is easier to pick up a language.

(2) 课程不多,有时间学习

词伙: extra time 翻译: Primary school students do not have many courses to attend, so they can spend extra time learning a foreign language

(3) 早点学习,减少口音,更有自信和兴趣学习

词伙: reduce accent, learn with enthusiasm 翻译: The early exposure to a foreign language can help children to reduce accent. They can learn it with enthusiasm if they are familiar with this language.

(1) 很多学生没有天赋,学习国际语言会增加负担

词伙: a facility for language learning 翻译: Students who do not have a facility for language learning may experience some difficulties in acquiring a foreign language.

(2) 学习能力不够,影响母语学习

词伙: cognitive skills, interfere with the mother tongue language acquisition 翻译: If a student does not have sufficient cognitive skills, it will interfere with the mother tongue language acquisition.

(1) 生活和收入 A 学习一门外语 B 很容易找到一个工作 C 很高的收入 背景:世界是相互联系的,很少有公司希望在不处理国际业务的情况下运营 解释(A-B)制造商、IT公司和服务公司必须与外国供应商和客户开展业务,对能说两种语言的员工需求量很大。因为他们可以帮助雇主扩大全球市场,增加收入

词伙: bilingual people 说双语的人 a distinct advantage明显的优势 expand the market globally 扩大国际市场 increase revenue 增加收入 翻译: Bilingual people are at a distinct advantage in today’s competitive world, and have the potential to earn higher income than those who speak one language only. The world is interconnected and few companies expect to operate without dealing with international business. Manufacturers, IT firms and service companies have to conduct business with foreign suppliers and clients, and employees who can speak two languages are in high demand. They can help employers expand the market globally and increase revenue.

(2) 能力 A学习一门外语 B 开拓思维 C 决策 解释(A-B)语言习得包括阅读有关使用目标语言的国家的资料 解释(A-B)人们可能会参观这些国家,以便更好地掌握这种语言 举例:这些经验可以让学习者了解其他国家的文化、价值观、信仰、风俗习惯和生活方式 解释(B-C)他们可能从不同的角度看待问题,并考虑不同的可能性,从而做出更好的决策 举例:如果一个亚洲国家的业务经理学习英语并了解倾听员工的重要性,他或她可能会邀请员工提供意见

词伙: 翻译: Learning a foreign language can broaden one’s mind and improve decision-making abilities. Language acquisition involves reading of material about those countries where the target language is used, and sometimes, people may visit these countries in order to have a good command of this language. These experiences can expose learners to the information about the culture, values, beliefs, customs and lifestyles of other countries. They may perceive a problem from different angles and consider different possibilities, thereby making better decisions. For example, a business manager of an Asian country may invite input from employees if he or she learns English and understands the importance of listening to staff.

(3) 能力 A 学习一门外语 B 接触不同的语法规则和单词 C变得更加聪明 解释(B-C):努力记住更多另一种语言的新词,大脑活动增加 解释 (B -C ): 需要思考怎么去理解外语的意思,这样大脑活动就会增加 解释(B-C)当这些语言学习者长大,他们有更好的认知技能。他们能够有效地处理对比信息

词伙: mental effort 精神努力 brain activity 脑活动 make sense 讲得通 翻译: The effort to pick up a foreign language can also improve intelligence of young learners as they are exposed to different grammar rules and vocabulary from their native language’s. Brain activity can increase considerably if a child is required to remember new words of another language. It requires mental effort to make sense an unfamiliar language. These language learners may have better cognitive skills when they grow up. They can possess contrasting information more effectively.

(4) 休闲时间 A 学习外语 B 很花时间 C 造成负担 解释(A-B)对于新手来说,他们需要每天记忆新词,读语法和句法的书 解释(B-C)如果他们不在说外语的国家,他们需要加倍认真才能扩大他们的词汇。除非人们为了职业提升或者对这个语言有兴趣,否则很难坚持

词伙: learning a foreign language 学一门外语 add a burden 增加负担 memorise new words 记忆新词 expand their vocabulary 扩大词汇量 career advacement 工作提升 have a passion for 对..有兴趣 翻译: Learning a foreign language can sometimes add a burden on learners as it is an arduous task. This is particularly true for beginners, who have to memorise new words every day and read books about grammar and syntax. If they are not in a foreign language country, they have to work twice harder to expand their vocabulary. Unless people acquire it for career advancement or have a passion for it, it is difficult for them to persist.

(1) 生活水平:A 从国外进口商品 B 提高人们的生活水平 C 人们更加开心。 背景:有些国家可能专门生产某些产品,因为它们有一些独特的优势,如气候、地理位置、技术、传统和劳动力。这些产品可能比其他国家的产品质量好,有时也更便宜。 解释(A-B):从海外进口产品可以提供更多的选择。 解释(A-B):降低生活成本,使国内消费者受益。

词伙: geographic locations, import products from abroad/overseas, reduce the cost of living 翻译: Importing goods from abroad can raise people’s living standards. Some countries may specialise in the production of some products because they have some unique advantages such as climate, geographic locations, technology, traditions and labour. These products are possibly of better quality than those available in other nations, and sometimes more affordable. Therefore, importing products from overseas can benefit domestic consumers by offering more options and possibly by reducing the cost of living. This can improve the quality of life.

(2) 经济: A 从海外进口商品 B 对别国的商品更加依赖 C 不利于本国经济的发展 解释(A-B):他们开放了市场,消除了贸易堡垒,这样易造成其他国家的产品占领他们的市场。 解释(B-C):他们也会对别国的商品更加依赖,从而不去发展自己可以生产出这些商品的科技,如果他们能够很容易以更加便宜的价格进口这些商品。 解释(C的结果):对于进口品的价格波动会更加容易受影响。

词伙: in the long term/ have a bad effect on/ cheaper and more diversified commodities/ open their markets/remove trade barriers/ local markets/ reasonable prices/ national economy 翻译: Some countries import a lot of goods from other countries may have a bad effect on the economy. In order to provide people with cheaper and more diversified commodities, some countries open their markets and remove trade barriers, and the consequence is that the domestic market is dominated by imports. These countries will also become more dependent on other countries’ goods and will not develop the technology to produce such higher quality ones if they can easily import them with much more reasonable prices. These countries will be vulnerable to the price volatility of imports in the long term.

(3) 环境: A 进口商品 B 需要消耗大量的燃料 C 破坏环境 解释(A-B)从海外进口商品需要长距离的运输 解释 (B-C)碳排放量增加,进一步加剧全球气候变化,造成环境的破坏。 对比:而如果人们只是消费本地或本国的商品则可避免由于长距离运输对环境的破坏。

词伙: the utilization rate of fuel/ carbon emissions/ global climate change/ environmental damage/ long distance transportation 翻译: Transporting goods over long distances can have a negative impact on the environment. Nowadays, despite the fact that the utilization rate of fuel is greatly improved because of the development of science and technology, importing goods from other countries, whether by air or by shipping, still needs to consume a large amount of fuel. This will lead to an increase in carbon emissions, further exacerbating global climate change and causing environmental damage. If people only consume domestic goods, they can avoid the environmental problems caused by long distance transportation.

(4) 环境:A进口粮食 B一场生物危机 C影响某些生物的生存。 解释(A-B):它可能会不小心引入一些外来的植物、昆虫和鱼类,它们在东道国可以疯狂生长。 解释(B-C):当这些物种争夺空间和营养时,会对当地的同类构成威胁。 解释(A-B):从海外进口一些家畜可能会带来引入新基因的风险。 解释(C的拓展):如果政府不能消灭这些入侵者并保护本地物种,最终可能会导致一些物种的灭绝。

词伙: biological crisis, exotic plants, grow wildly, farm animals, species loss 翻译: Importing food can also be a biological crisis. It may accidentally introduce some exotic plants, insects and fish, which can grow wildly in the host country. These species can pose a threat to local counterparts, when they compete for space and nutrients. Meanwhile, importing some farm animals from overseas may risk introducing new genes. It may eventually cause some species loss, if the government fails to eliminates these intruders and preserve local species.

(5) 健康:A进口食品 B食用进口食品会带来健康问题 C 有害 背景:为保存食物,特别是易腐烂的食物,进口商在长途运输中经常使用防腐剂或其他化学品。 解释(A-B):如果不能有效地去除这些物质,就会对健康有害。 对比:食用本地食物可能是一个更健康的选择,因为它使用更少的化学物质。

词伙: imported food, pose health risks, preserve food, long-haul transportation, locally-sourced food 翻译: The consumption of imported food can pose health risks. To preserve food, especially perishables, over long-haul transportation, importers habitually use preservatives or other chemicals. These substances are, however, harmful to health, if not removed effectively. Eating locally-sourced food is possibly a healthier option because it uses less chemicals.


43 全球化:进出口和空航

(1) 发展生物燃油,提升飞机的燃油使用效率

词伙: biofuel, fuel economy 翻译: The development of biofuel and the methods to achieve fuel economy can possibly mitigate the environmental problems attributable to air transport.

(2) 航班的管理提升,减少不必要的航班,确保每个航班充分利用

词伙: cut non-essential flights, make the most of capacity 翻译: Airlines should manage their services more efficiently, by cutting non-essential flights and making the most of capacity of every trip.

(3) 添加燃油税,抑制大家坐飞机

词伙: impose a fuel tax, curb air travel 翻译: Impose a fuel tax can be another approach, as higher air fairs can curb air travel.


44 全球化:旅游业发展的影响

(1) 知识:旅游让人们造成对一些国家错误的看法,让他们加深误解。解释:呆的时间很短,看到一个东西进行一个猜测和判断,以偏概全,又没有足够的时间去纠正错误的看法。解释2:语言不通,用自己的文化知识去解释自己所看到的一些情况,也有可能产生误解,又不能够问当地人问题来纠正这种看法。这种错误的观念会影响交流和相处。

词伙: develop misconceptions, reinforce stereotypes, take a long vacation, make assumptions, correct misconceptions, langauge barriers, biased views 翻译: One problem of travelling abroad is that tourists may form some misconceptions about another country and a trip can possibly reinforce their stereotypes about the host country. They may not take a long vacation, and therefore, they tend to make assumptions or judgments based on what they see, and sometimes over-generalise. They have no time to correct misconceptions. Meanwhile, because of language barriers, they tend to interpret the customs and social norms of local communities by their own cultural knowledge. They are not able to communicate with locals to revisit their ideas. Their biased views can affect their communication with people from these countreis.

(2) 健康:生病。解释:水土不服。 解释:有些国家疾病蔓延,卫生条件不好。

词伙: fall ill, acclimatise, contract diseases, poor sanitation, spread of viruses 翻译: Some tourists may fall ill during their trips. They are not able to adapt to the local environment/acclimatize. They are also likely to contract diseases in some countries due to poor sanitation and the spread of viruses.

(3) 费用:花钱。解释:交通,住宿,饮食,门票,买礼物。 问题:增加生活成本。

词伙: admission fees, increase the cost of living 翻译: If people travel frequently/spend a luxury holiday, it can increase the cost of living. They have to spend money on transportation, accommodation, food, admission fees and buying gifts, which can add the cost of living.

(1) 知识:可以开拓视野,增加知识。解释:和当地人交流,参加一些名胜古迹和文化景点,与此同时,阅读书籍等。 好处:人会变得开明,知道不同思维方式和做事方法。

词伙: broaden minds, increase knowledge, places of historical interest, ways of thinking 翻译: Travelling enables people to broaden their minds and increase knowledge. They can achieve this by talking to locals, including tour guides, by visiting places of historical interest, and by reading books. Therefore, they will become open-minded as they are aware of different ways of thinking and dealing with problems.

(2) 休闲:可以放松。解释:远离每天枯燥的生活,不用工作。解释2:可以亲近大自然,可以尝试一些有趣的活动,譬如说远足,蹦极,让自己释放压力和不好的情感。

词伙: go on holiday, way of unwinding, escape the grind/monotony, get close to nature, relieve stress, release negative emotions 翻译: Going on holiday is also an effective way of unwinding. People do not need to work, and they also have opportunities escape the grind/monotony of everyday lives. In addition, they can get close to nature and try some exciting activites such as hiking and bungee jumping, which relieve stress and release negative emotions.

(3) 个人发展:提高很多能力。 解释:让你逃离自己舒适区,做很多之前没做过的事情,譬如说:怎么和陌生人交流,怎么处理突发的事情,怎么很好的控制旅程的预算。

词伙: develop skills, move out of the comfort zone, handle emergencies, make a budget 翻译: Another benefit of travelling is that people can acquire some new skills. They will move out of the comfort zone and do something they never experience before, such as talking to strangers, handling emergencies in an unfamiliar environment and budgeting each trip.

(4) 收入:人们可能会捕捉到一些商机。 解释:人们可以去到不同国家考察,挖掘和发现商业机会,譬如说,当地人卖的一些商品,或者经营的一些技巧,等等。

词伙: explore business opportunities, exposed to some novel ideas, business techniques 翻译: People can visit different countries, where they can discover and explore business opportunities. They can be exposed to some novel ideas about selling some products which are not available in the domestic market, and business techniques which can help grow sales. If they apply such ideas to their own work or business, they may make some breakthroughs.

(1) 经济:提升一个国家或者地区的收入。解释:游客会消费,譬如说订酒店,就餐,购物,等等。具体的好处:产生大量就业机会,对于某些经济一直发展很慢的地区有用。旅游的收入可以投资在各种设施上,可以吸引更多投资。

词伙: driver of economic growth,create jobs,sluggish economies, reinvest revenue, attract investment 翻译: Tourism can become a major driver of economic growth. Tourists’ expenditure on hotels, services of restaurants and shopping can bring cash to local communities and encourage local businesses to hire more people. Employment can spur the development of some sluggish economies. Tourism revenue can be reinvested in different facilities, which can attract even more investment.

(2) 知识:有利于文化和习俗的保护。 解释:旅游带来了收入,当地人知道自己文化和习俗的价值,文化认同感加深了,加以保护。 解释:有助于某些文化的宣传,官方网站和游客的游记等。

词伙: Preserve traditions, a source of revenue, age-old traditions, a sense of cultural identity 翻译: The tourism boom may help preserve the traditions and cultural attractions of some communities or countries. Tourism is a source of revenue, which may draw attention to the value of some age-old traditions, such as traditional ways of preparing food and making handicrafts. This can reinforce the sense of cultural identity. As some communities attract more visitors than before, some of their traditions will grab attention of conservation groups. They are publicised by official websites of high-profile travel agencies and the diaries, blogs and travel books written by well-travelled persons.

(3) 环境:有利于保护当地的环境。解释:旅游带来了收入,当地人慢慢放弃一些传统的谋生手段(减少对环境的破坏)。

词伙: protect the local environment, generate income, traditional livelihoods, reduce the environmental damage 翻译: If the revenue of tourism increases, it can help protect the local environment. As tourism generates income, it can encourage locals to give up traditional livelihoods. If locals stop farming, logging and hunting, it can reduce the damage to the environment.

(1) 知识:不利于文化和习俗的保护。解释:当地人改变传统去迎合游客。简化一些仪式去多赚钱,或者增加一些活动去赚钱,但是这些活动违背了传统的一些观念。 解释2:当地人的生活方式会改变。

词伙: cater for the needs,values underlying traditions 翻译: The expansion of the tourism sector may present a challenge to the preservation of some traditions and cultures. Locals may change traditions to cater for the needs of tourists, for example, simplifying some traditional rituals to entertain more visitors, or altering some celebrations to keep the audience interested, but these changes are inconsistent with the values underlying some traditions. Meanwhile, the lifestyles of local residents may be changed due to the arrival of tourists.

(2) 环境:破坏环境。解释:增加了很多的设施,破坏当地的自然环境。 解释2:游客产生很多的垃圾,交通工具产生的废气,导致污染。解释3:人多了,生态环境比较脆弱很容易被破坏。

词伙: cause damage to the environment, create waste, a source of pollution, fragile ecosystem, overrun by tourists 翻译: if the number of tourists increases, it can cause the damage to the environment. The surge in facilities such as hotels and roads can change the local environment remarkably. Tourists can create waste and the emissions of different means of transport are also a source of pollution. Finally, the fragile ecosystem can become more vulnerable, as some attractions are overun by tourists.


45 全球化:留学和移民

留学好处

(1) 可能上更好的大学

词伙: attend a famous university 翻译: young people are more likely to attend a famous university if they choose to study abroad

(2) 学习外语,工作机会更好

词伙: pick up a foreign language, improve job prospects 翻译: Studying in a foreign country means that they can pick up a foreign language more easily, which can improve job prospects.

(3) 眼界更加宽,能够接受不同的看法

词伙: broaden horizons, take a broader perspective 翻译: Living in another country enables young people to broaden horizons and take a broader perspective in their lives.

(4) 离开父母生活,更加独立

词伙: become self-reliant, live separately from parents 翻译: Young people can become self-reliant, as they live separately from parents and handle everything independently.

(5) 外国的朋友圈加大,职业机会更多

词伙: enlarge the circle of friends, broaden career horizons 翻译: young people can enlarge the circle of friends overseas, and it can broaden career horizons.

留学坏处:

(1) 很难适应外国的环境,思乡病

词伙: adapt to an unfamiliar environment, feel homesick 翻译: International students may find it difficult to adapt to an unfamiliar environment, and many of them may feel homesick.

(2) 语言不通,影响学业

词伙: overcome language barriers, educational underachievement. 翻译: it is also difficult to overcome language barriers. Failing to understand lectures may lead to educational underachievement.

移民优缺点:

(1) 文化 A 有很多的移民 B 人们接触不同的文化 C 文化变得比较包容,大家对文化多元性的意识也会加强 解释(A-B)他们在生活方式、价值体系和社会规范方面更能适应不同民族所采用和重视的多样性 解释(B-C)生活在多元文化城市的人们不把另一种文化视为古怪和不可接受的文化,而是了解各种生活方式的起源和价值

词伙: exposed to cultures 接触不同的文化 inclusive/tolerating 包容的 cultural awareness 文化意识 翻译: Countries which embrace multiculturalism are more inclusive as people are exposed to different cultures. They are more comfortable with the diversity in ways of life, value systems and social norms adopted and valued by different ethnic groups. Instead of seeing another culture as odd and unacceptable, people living in multicultural cities understand the origin as well as the value of every way of living. They are more prepared to embrace diversity and accept cultural differences.

(2) 经济 A 有很多的移民 B 带来投资和钱 C 对经济有一定帮助 解释(A-B)一个多民族社会也有更多的机会实现生态繁荣,因为不同种族背景的人通常都会带着钱来 解释(B-C)他们可以在当地设立一家企业,或投资当地公司,以此谋生 解释(B-C)与此同时,他们必须在当地定居时购买家具和家用产品。他们的钱有利于经济增长

词伙: A multi-ethnic society多民族的社会 economic prosperity 经济繁荣 different ethnic backgrounds 不同的民族背景 set up a business locally 在当地开办企业 翻译: A multi-ethnic society also has more opportunities for economic prosperity as people of different ethnic backgrounds normally come with money. They may set up a business locally or invest in a local company as a way of earning a livelihood. Meanwhile, they have to purchase furniture and household products as they settle locally. Their money is beneficial to economic growth.

(3) 经济 A 有很多的移民 B 带来劳动力,创业 C 对当地的生活水平提高 解释(B-C):解决劳动力紧缺的问题 解释(B-C):为了在当地扎根,工作很勤奋,新来的人努力工作开始新的生活 解释(B-C):来自不同的地方,将那个地方的一些产品和文化带过来,丰富当地人的生活 举例:食物,在这些多文化的社区中,人们经常能够享受美味的佳肴

词伙: people from diverse ethnic backgrounds 人们来自不同的民族背景 improve the standard of living 提高生活水平 host community东道主社区 local inhabitants 当地的居民 multiechnic communities 多民族的社区 翻译: The arrival of people from diverse ethnic backgrounds can also improve the standard of living as these people bring skills and jobs valuable to the local economy. Some of them may have skills to fill gaps in the labour market, and these newcomers work hard to start a new life. Meanwhile, they may introduce some products unique to their own cultures to the host community, thereby offering local inhabitants more choices in lives. Food is a typical example, and in those multi-ethnic communities, people normally enjoy different cuisine.

(4) 科技 A 有很多的移民 B带来一些想法、创意还有技术 C 对于创新有一定帮助 解释(A-B)一个多文化社区也有一个有利于创新的环境,因为来自世界各地的人们可以贡献他们独特的思维方式 解释(B-C)一个拥有多元化劳动力的公司更有能力开发创意,因为员工们聚集在一起分享想法,从不同的角度分析问题 举例:在开发新产品的过程中,来自不同文化背景的人可能会强调从包装到功能的不同方面。这种头脑风暴过程可以给公司带来新的视角

词伙: a multicultural community 多文化的社区 an environment conducive to innovations有利于文化创新 distinct ways of thinking 不同的思维方式 diverse workforce多样的劳动力 be more capable of 更有能力 develop creative ideas 发展创意 brainstorming process 头南风暴过程 翻译: A multi-cultural community also has an environment conducive to innovations as people from different parts of the world can contribute their distinct ways of thinking. A company with a diverse workforce is more capable of developing creative ideas as employees come together to share ideas and analyse an issue from different perspectives. In the development of a new product, for instance, people from different cultures may lay emphasis on different aspects, from package to functions. This brainstorming process can give the company new perspectives.

(5) 文化 A 有很多的移民 B 当地的文化会受到一定影响 C 当地的特色会消失 解释(A-B)对多元文化主义有强烈感情的人认为多元文化主义会威胁当地文化,侵蚀当地人的认同感 解释(A-B)食物、服饰、节日甚至宗教都是一种文化中有趣的组成部分,如果一个民族团体在一个社区中越来越有影响力,他们的文化很可能会影响当地人 举例:在英国的一些社区,随着穆斯林移民数量的增加,一些当地居民改变了他们的宗教信仰。人们越来越担心它会对当地的宗教生活产生深远的影响

词伙: have strong feelings about multiculturalism对多元文化有强烈的感情 threaten the local culture威胁当地的文化 erode the sense of identity of native people侵蚀本地人的身份认同感 change their religious beliefs改变宗教信仰 Muslism immigrant 穆斯林移民 have a profound effect on 对..有深远影响 local religious life 当地的宗教生活 翻译: People who have strong feelings about multiculturalism think that it could threaten the local culture and erode the sense of identity of native people. The food, dresses, festivals and even religions are among the interesting components of a culture, and if an ethnic group increases presence in a community, their culture is likely to influence locals. In some communities in the UK, for example, some local residents have changed their religious beliefs as the number of Muslim immigrants increases. There is growing concern that it will have a profound impact on local religious life.

(6) 犯罪 A 有很多的移民 B 相互之间差异很大 C 社会分化 解释(B-C)一些少数民族可能认为他们没有受到尊重,他们需要根据东道国的法律来放弃他们的一些传统,例如宗教习俗 解释(B-C)同时,当地居民可能会抱怨新来者没有尝试融入当地文化 如果这些种族差异没有得到解决,暴力就会爆发

词伙: the presence of multiple ethnic groups 多民族的存在 increase the risk of racial conflicts 增加种族冲突的风险 be treated with respect 受到尊重 forsake some of their traditions 放弃一些他们的传统 integrate into the local culture 融入到当地的文化 make an attempt 尝试 ethnic differences 种族差异 翻译: The presence of multiple ethnic groups can also increase the risk of racial conflicts as cultural differences are not overcome easily. Some ethnic minorities may think that they are not treated with respect and that they are required to forsake some of their traditions, such as religious practices, by the laws of the host community. In the meantime, inhabitants native to the community may complain that newcomers do not make an attempt to integrate into the local culture. If these ethnic differences are not settled, violence can erupt.


46 全球化:文化多样性

全球化通过以下方面影响我们的文化:

(1) 西方的跨国公司在不同国家开厂和设立办事处,工作的文化影响当地人

词伙: multinational companies, factories and subsidiaries, work practices, corporate culture 翻译: Multinational companies have factories and subsidiaries in different parts of the world. Their work practices and corporate culture can influence employees they hire locally.

(2) 西方的媒体(包括杂志、电影、电视节目等)鼓励人们模仿西方人的生活方式、接受外国人的价值观

词伙: western lifestyles, embrace values of the West 翻译: People who read magazines and watch films and TV programmes imported from the western world tend to copy western lifestyles and embrace values of the West.

(3) 和西方人的接触(包括旅游、留学和移民等),耳熟目染外国的文化

词伙: exposed to a foreign culture, come into contact with 翻译: People can come into contact with the ways of life and values of other countries when travelling, studying or living overseas. They are exposed to a foreign culture and gradually, they assimilate into the local culture.

文化变化的好坏处:

(1) 接触不同的文化,思维更加宽,人更加宽容

词伙: exposed to different cultures, broaden minds, tolerating 翻译: People who are exposed to different cultures will become more tolerating and keep an open mind to different ideas.

(2) 接触不同的文化,自己的某些习俗可能慢慢消失,影响文化多样性,世界变得无聊

词伙: cultural diversity, a mundane world 翻译: Due to the exposure to exotic cultures, some customs may disappear. People may live in a mundane world if cultural diversity is compromised.

我们会在以下方面失去自己的传统和习惯:

(1) 衣服 (大家都穿西服,而不是自己的传统服饰)

词伙: western suits, traditional costumes 翻译: People tend to wear western suits, rather than traditional costumes.

(2) 艺术、音乐、电影 (喜欢看好莱坞电影、流行乐、西方的油画,而不是本国的艺术形式,民谣等)

词伙: Hollywood movies, pop music, oil paintings, art forms, folk music 翻译: It is common to watch Hollywood movies, listen to pop music and appreciate oil paintings. People are less interested in traditional art forms and folk music.

(3) 建筑 (喜欢西方国家的摩天大楼,石头建筑等)

词伙: skyscrapers, stone houses 翻译: Western architectural styles such as skyscrapers and stone houses are everywhere in the world.

(4) 饮食 (快餐风靡,喜欢吃牛扒)

词伙: fast food, eat steak 翻译: Eating fast food and western dishes such as steak has gained in popularity.

(5) 传统节日,庆典 (庆祝圣诞节,情人节,甚至感恩节,而不是自己的传统节日)

词伙: celebrate traditional festivals 翻译: Instead of celebrating traditional festivals, people are keen to celebrate Christmas, Valentine’s Day and even Thanksgiving.

(6) 价值观和生活观 (更加追求个人成功,而不是家庭和社会生活的幸福;更加追求平等,对于社会阶级的意识淡化)

词伙: achieve ambitions, family and social life, equality, social hierarchy 翻译: Young people of some developing countries spend time achieving ambitions, rather than family and social life. They value equality and disapprove of social hierarchy.

(7) 语言 (喜欢学习外语,有些方言慢慢减少)

词伙: a foreign language, speak local dialects 翻译: People invest time and effort in picking up a foreign language.The number of people who can speak local dialects has dropped sharply.